This study aimed to investigate consumer sensory profiles and liking of Parmigiano Reggiano PDO cheese produced with milk from cows reared indoors and fed with different forage sources, i.e., dry hay and fresh forage. Two cheese samples were tested by 119 Italian subjects, following a protocol that included a Check-All-That-Apply method to assess the sensory profile, a Just-About-Right scale to evaluate the adequacy of attributes, and questions on liking (9-point hedonic scale). A questionnaire related to personal information and consumption habits was also submitted. The color of the two samples, based on image analysis, was different: the sample produced with milk from the dairy cows fed fresh forage had a higher intensity of yellow than the other; they were also described differently (p ≤ 0.05) by participants in the consumer test. Indeed, Parmigiano Reggiano produced with milk from the cows that were fed dry hay was mainly characterized by a "fresh milk" and "solubility", while the sample produced with milk from cows fed fresh forage was described as "yellow", "seasoned", "pungent", and with a "cheese crust" flavor. Even if no significant differences were observed between the two samples in terms of liking (p ≤ 0.05), the attribute "graininess" showed a great impact on liking ratings together with "yellow" (p ≤ 0.05), apparently corresponding to a specific expectation regarding the intensity of these attributes. Data were also analyzed according to the gender of consumers, highlighting that for women, the adequacy of "fresh milk", "sweet", and "graininess" greatly impacted liking for the cheese from cows fed dry hay.

Tura, M., Gagliano, M.A., Soglia, F., Bendini, A., Patrignani, F., Petracci, M., et al. (2024). Consumer Perception and Liking of Parmigiano Reggiano Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Cheese Produced with Milk from Cows Fed Fresh Forage vs. Dry Hay. FOODS, 13(2), 1-17 [10.3390/foods13020309].

Consumer Perception and Liking of Parmigiano Reggiano Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Cheese Produced with Milk from Cows Fed Fresh Forage vs. Dry Hay

Tura, Matilde
Primo
;
Gagliano, Mara Antonia;Soglia, Francesca;Bendini, Alessandra
;
Patrignani, Francesca;Petracci, Massimiliano;Gallina Toschi, Tullia;Valli, Enrico
Ultimo
2024

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate consumer sensory profiles and liking of Parmigiano Reggiano PDO cheese produced with milk from cows reared indoors and fed with different forage sources, i.e., dry hay and fresh forage. Two cheese samples were tested by 119 Italian subjects, following a protocol that included a Check-All-That-Apply method to assess the sensory profile, a Just-About-Right scale to evaluate the adequacy of attributes, and questions on liking (9-point hedonic scale). A questionnaire related to personal information and consumption habits was also submitted. The color of the two samples, based on image analysis, was different: the sample produced with milk from the dairy cows fed fresh forage had a higher intensity of yellow than the other; they were also described differently (p ≤ 0.05) by participants in the consumer test. Indeed, Parmigiano Reggiano produced with milk from the cows that were fed dry hay was mainly characterized by a "fresh milk" and "solubility", while the sample produced with milk from cows fed fresh forage was described as "yellow", "seasoned", "pungent", and with a "cheese crust" flavor. Even if no significant differences were observed between the two samples in terms of liking (p ≤ 0.05), the attribute "graininess" showed a great impact on liking ratings together with "yellow" (p ≤ 0.05), apparently corresponding to a specific expectation regarding the intensity of these attributes. Data were also analyzed according to the gender of consumers, highlighting that for women, the adequacy of "fresh milk", "sweet", and "graininess" greatly impacted liking for the cheese from cows fed dry hay.
2024
Tura, M., Gagliano, M.A., Soglia, F., Bendini, A., Patrignani, F., Petracci, M., et al. (2024). Consumer Perception and Liking of Parmigiano Reggiano Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) Cheese Produced with Milk from Cows Fed Fresh Forage vs. Dry Hay. FOODS, 13(2), 1-17 [10.3390/foods13020309].
Tura, Matilde; Gagliano, Mara Antonia; Soglia, Francesca; Bendini, Alessandra; Patrignani, Francesca; Petracci, Massimiliano; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Valli, Enrico
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/956641
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