Rapid analytical techniques were used to analyze the lipid fraction and to characterize phenolic compounds in Italian walnuts (Chandler cv.) grown in the same experimental orchard under different agronomical conditions. Lipid components such as fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols were determined by capillary gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. Linoleic and linolenic acids were the most representative w-6 and w-3 essential dietary fatty acids present. A total lipid chromatogram was used to simultaneously determine free sterols and tocopherols.Walnuts contained substantial amounts of g- and d-tocopherol, which explains their antioxidant properties. Sitosterol, D5-avenasterol and campesterol were the major free sterols found. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography was used to analyze simple and complex phenols (tannin profile), while the total phenol amount and the antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts were assessed by spectrophotometric assays with Folin-Ciocalteu and ABTS•+ reagents, respectively. The total phenol content was higher than most foodstuffs. Moreover, more than 96% of the phenolic fraction belonged to the tannin class. Statistical analysis of the data showed that higher levels of nitrogen fertilization led to a significant increase in linoleic acid. This effect can induce a faster oxidation of lipid fraction of walnuts. Nevertheless, major nitrogen fertilization and irrigation were able to enrich walnuts in phenolic compounds.

CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY ANALYSIS OF LIPID COMPOSITION AND EVALUATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS BY MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY IN ITALIAN WALNUT (JUGLANS REGIA L.): IRRIGATION AND FERTILIZATION INFLUENCE

VERARDO, VITO;BENDINI, ALESSANDRA;CERRETANI, LORENZO;MALAGUTI, DONATELLA;CABONI, MARIA
2009

Abstract

Rapid analytical techniques were used to analyze the lipid fraction and to characterize phenolic compounds in Italian walnuts (Chandler cv.) grown in the same experimental orchard under different agronomical conditions. Lipid components such as fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols were determined by capillary gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. Linoleic and linolenic acids were the most representative w-6 and w-3 essential dietary fatty acids present. A total lipid chromatogram was used to simultaneously determine free sterols and tocopherols.Walnuts contained substantial amounts of g- and d-tocopherol, which explains their antioxidant properties. Sitosterol, D5-avenasterol and campesterol were the major free sterols found. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography was used to analyze simple and complex phenols (tannin profile), while the total phenol amount and the antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts were assessed by spectrophotometric assays with Folin-Ciocalteu and ABTS•+ reagents, respectively. The total phenol content was higher than most foodstuffs. Moreover, more than 96% of the phenolic fraction belonged to the tannin class. Statistical analysis of the data showed that higher levels of nitrogen fertilization led to a significant increase in linoleic acid. This effect can induce a faster oxidation of lipid fraction of walnuts. Nevertheless, major nitrogen fertilization and irrigation were able to enrich walnuts in phenolic compounds.
Verardo V.; Bendini A.; Cerretani L.; Malaguti D.; Cozzolino E.; M. F. Caboni
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/75671
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