Einkorn wheat bulgur is a traditional food deeply rooted in some areas of Turkey, since ages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of simulated traditional bulgur preparation on einkorn wheat bioactive compound content. A local einkorn wheat grain sample from Turkey was boiled for 2, 3 and 4 h, then dried in a thermo-ventilated oven. Tocols, carotenoids, phytosterols and phenolics, determined as free (FPC) and bound (BPC) phenolic compounds, were analysed in hulled (spikelets) and dehulled (kernels) bulgur samples, to highlight also glumes’ contribute to their content and evolution. Kernel carotenoid and tocol content significantly decreased following bulgur preparation, to an extent of 42–58% and 15–30%, respectively. Phytosterols slightly decreased in cooked (12–19%), with respect to raw kernels. Phenolics showed different patterns, highlighting glumes’ contribute: kernel FPC increased (+87%) after 4 h of boiling, whereas no significant variations were observed for BPC. A drastic decrease of total and BPC (20.5–28.0%), was observed in spikelets following bulgur preparation. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid resulted the most abundant phenolic acids, respectively, in kernels and spikelets. Decreases in tocol, carotenoids and phytosterol contents were observed whereas an increase of kernel FPC content was calculated after cooking.

The fate of bioactive compounds during traditional preparation of einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L. subsp. monococcum) bulgur

Giambanelli E.
;
Ferioli F.;D'Antuono L. F.
2020

Abstract

Einkorn wheat bulgur is a traditional food deeply rooted in some areas of Turkey, since ages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of simulated traditional bulgur preparation on einkorn wheat bioactive compound content. A local einkorn wheat grain sample from Turkey was boiled for 2, 3 and 4 h, then dried in a thermo-ventilated oven. Tocols, carotenoids, phytosterols and phenolics, determined as free (FPC) and bound (BPC) phenolic compounds, were analysed in hulled (spikelets) and dehulled (kernels) bulgur samples, to highlight also glumes’ contribute to their content and evolution. Kernel carotenoid and tocol content significantly decreased following bulgur preparation, to an extent of 42–58% and 15–30%, respectively. Phytosterols slightly decreased in cooked (12–19%), with respect to raw kernels. Phenolics showed different patterns, highlighting glumes’ contribute: kernel FPC increased (+87%) after 4 h of boiling, whereas no significant variations were observed for BPC. A drastic decrease of total and BPC (20.5–28.0%), was observed in spikelets following bulgur preparation. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid resulted the most abundant phenolic acids, respectively, in kernels and spikelets. Decreases in tocol, carotenoids and phytosterol contents were observed whereas an increase of kernel FPC content was calculated after cooking.
Giambanelli E.; Ferioli F.; D'Antuono L.F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/733491
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