BACKGROUND: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited blinding disorder, which in over 90% of cases is due to one of three primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations (m.11778G>A, m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C, respectively in MT-ND4, MT-ND1 and MT-ND6 genes). However, the spectrum of mtDNA mutations causing the remaining 10% of cases is only partially and often poorly defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to improve such a list of pathological variants, we completely sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of suspected LHON patients from Italy, France and Germany, lacking the three primary common mutations. Phylogenetic and conservation analyses were performed. Sixteen mitochondrial genomes were found to harbor at least one of the following nine rare LHON pathogenic mutations in genes MT-ND1 (m.3700G>A/p.A132T, m.3733G>A-C/p.E143K-Q, m.4171C>A/p.L289M), MT-ND4L (m.10663T>C/p.V65A) and MT-ND6 (m.14459G>A/p.A72V, m.14495A>G/p.M64I, m.14482C>A/p.L60S, and m.14568C>T/p.G36S). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these substitutions were due to independent events on different haplogroups, whereas interspecies comparisons showed that they affected conserved amino acid residues or domains in the ND subunit genes of complex I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that these nine substitutions are all primary LHON mutations. Therefore, despite their relative low frequency, they should be routinely tested for in all LHON patients lacking the three common mutations. Moreover, our sequence analysis confirms the major role of haplogroups J1c and J2b (over 35% in our probands versus 6% in the general population of Western Europe) and other putative synergistic mtDNA variants in LHON expression.

Rare Primary Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Probable Synergistic Variants in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

IOMMARINI, LUISA;LA MORGIA, CHIARA;VALENTINO, MARIA LUCIA;LIGUORI, ROCCO;PIZZA, FABIO;CARELLI, VALERIO
2012

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited blinding disorder, which in over 90% of cases is due to one of three primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations (m.11778G>A, m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C, respectively in MT-ND4, MT-ND1 and MT-ND6 genes). However, the spectrum of mtDNA mutations causing the remaining 10% of cases is only partially and often poorly defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to improve such a list of pathological variants, we completely sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of suspected LHON patients from Italy, France and Germany, lacking the three primary common mutations. Phylogenetic and conservation analyses were performed. Sixteen mitochondrial genomes were found to harbor at least one of the following nine rare LHON pathogenic mutations in genes MT-ND1 (m.3700G>A/p.A132T, m.3733G>A-C/p.E143K-Q, m.4171C>A/p.L289M), MT-ND4L (m.10663T>C/p.V65A) and MT-ND6 (m.14459G>A/p.A72V, m.14495A>G/p.M64I, m.14482C>A/p.L60S, and m.14568C>T/p.G36S). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these substitutions were due to independent events on different haplogroups, whereas interspecies comparisons showed that they affected conserved amino acid residues or domains in the ND subunit genes of complex I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that these nine substitutions are all primary LHON mutations. Therefore, despite their relative low frequency, they should be routinely tested for in all LHON patients lacking the three common mutations. Moreover, our sequence analysis confirms the major role of haplogroups J1c and J2b (over 35% in our probands versus 6% in the general population of Western Europe) and other putative synergistic mtDNA variants in LHON expression.
PLOS ONE
Achilli A.; Iommarini L.; Olivieri A.; Pala M.; Hooshiar Kashani B.; Reynier P.; La Morgia C.; Valentino M.L.; Liguori R.; Pizza F.; Barboni P.; Sadun F.; De Negri A.M.; Zeviani M.; Dollfus H.; Moulignier A.; Ducos G.; Orssaud C.; Bonneau D.; Procaccio V.; Leo-Kottler B.; Fauser S.; Wissinger B.; Amati-Bonneau P.; Torroni A.; Carelli V.
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Descrizione: Figure S1 Pedigrees of LHON families. Family ID numbers, mtDNA mutations and haplogroup affiliations are reported.
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Descrizione: Table S2: Conservation analysis and pathogenicity prediction of mtDNA polymorphic nucleotide changes
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Descrizione: Table S3: Degree of conservation of amino acid positions contiguous to non-conserved polymorphic variants.
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Descrizione: Table S4: PCR oligonucleotides and restriction enzymes employed to evaluate heteroplasmy of LHON rare mutations.
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Descrizione: Text S1: Case reports: clinical details of patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/126316
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