Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the supernatant of the fresh juice obtained from olives by crushing, pressure and centrifugation, without additional refining. Its flavour is characteristic and is markedly different from those of other edible fats and oils. The combined effect of odour (directly via the nose or indirectly through a retronasal path, via the mouth), taste and chemical responses (as pungency) gives rise to the sensation generally perceived as “flavour”. Sensory analysis is an essential technique to characterize food and investigate consumer preferences. International cooperative studies, supported by the International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) have provided a sensory codified methodology for VOOs, known as the “COI Panel test”. Such an approach is based on the judgments of a panel of assessors, conducted by a panel leader, who has sufficient knowledge and skills to prepare sessions of sensory analysis, motivate judgement, process data, interpret results and draft the report. The panel generally consists of a group of 8 to 12 persons, selected and trained to identify and measure the intensity of the different positive and negative sensations perceived. Sensory assessment is carried out according to codified rules, in a specific tasting room, using controlled conditions to minimize external influences, using a proper tasting glass and adopting both a specific vocabulary and a profile sheet that includes positive and negative sensory attributes (Dec-23/98-V/2010). Collection of the results and statistical elaboration must be standardized (EEC Reg. 2568/91, EC Reg. 640/08). The colour of VOO, which is not significantly related to its quality, may produce expectations and interferences in the flavour perception phase. In order to eliminate any prejudices that may affect the smelling and tasting phases, panelists use a dark-coloured (blue or amber-coloured) tasting glass. Many chemical parameters and sensory analyses (EEC Reg. 2568/91 and EC Reg. 640/08), with the latter carried out by both olfactory and gustatory assessments, can classify oils in different quality categories (extra virgin, virgin, lampant). Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) extracted from fresh and healthy olive fruits (Olea europaea L.), properly processed and adequately stored, is characterized by an unique and measurable combination of aroma and taste. Moreover, the category of EVOO should not show any defects (e.g. fusty, musty, winey, metallic, rancid) that can originate from incorrect production or storage procedures. Positive or negative sensory descriptors of VOO have been related to volatile and phenol profiles, which are responsible for aroma and taste, respectively. The characteristic taste of VOO, and in particular some positive attributes such as bitterness and pungency that are related to important health benefits, is not completely understood or appreciated by consumers. In this respect, it is interesting to consider the degree of acceptability of VOO in several countries based on literature data. In this way, it is possible to lay the foundations for correct instruction of the sensory characteristics of EVOO. The main chemical, biochemical and technological processes responsible for the positive and negative (defects) descriptors of VOO are summarized in this chapter. An overview on the sensory methodologies proposed, applied and modified during the last 20 years is also presented.

Sensory Analysis of Virgin Olive Oil

BENDINI, ALESSANDRA;VALLI, ENRICO;BARBIERI, SARA;GALLINA TOSCHI, TULLIA
2012

Abstract

Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the supernatant of the fresh juice obtained from olives by crushing, pressure and centrifugation, without additional refining. Its flavour is characteristic and is markedly different from those of other edible fats and oils. The combined effect of odour (directly via the nose or indirectly through a retronasal path, via the mouth), taste and chemical responses (as pungency) gives rise to the sensation generally perceived as “flavour”. Sensory analysis is an essential technique to characterize food and investigate consumer preferences. International cooperative studies, supported by the International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) have provided a sensory codified methodology for VOOs, known as the “COI Panel test”. Such an approach is based on the judgments of a panel of assessors, conducted by a panel leader, who has sufficient knowledge and skills to prepare sessions of sensory analysis, motivate judgement, process data, interpret results and draft the report. The panel generally consists of a group of 8 to 12 persons, selected and trained to identify and measure the intensity of the different positive and negative sensations perceived. Sensory assessment is carried out according to codified rules, in a specific tasting room, using controlled conditions to minimize external influences, using a proper tasting glass and adopting both a specific vocabulary and a profile sheet that includes positive and negative sensory attributes (Dec-23/98-V/2010). Collection of the results and statistical elaboration must be standardized (EEC Reg. 2568/91, EC Reg. 640/08). The colour of VOO, which is not significantly related to its quality, may produce expectations and interferences in the flavour perception phase. In order to eliminate any prejudices that may affect the smelling and tasting phases, panelists use a dark-coloured (blue or amber-coloured) tasting glass. Many chemical parameters and sensory analyses (EEC Reg. 2568/91 and EC Reg. 640/08), with the latter carried out by both olfactory and gustatory assessments, can classify oils in different quality categories (extra virgin, virgin, lampant). Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) extracted from fresh and healthy olive fruits (Olea europaea L.), properly processed and adequately stored, is characterized by an unique and measurable combination of aroma and taste. Moreover, the category of EVOO should not show any defects (e.g. fusty, musty, winey, metallic, rancid) that can originate from incorrect production or storage procedures. Positive or negative sensory descriptors of VOO have been related to volatile and phenol profiles, which are responsible for aroma and taste, respectively. The characteristic taste of VOO, and in particular some positive attributes such as bitterness and pungency that are related to important health benefits, is not completely understood or appreciated by consumers. In this respect, it is interesting to consider the degree of acceptability of VOO in several countries based on literature data. In this way, it is possible to lay the foundations for correct instruction of the sensory characteristics of EVOO. The main chemical, biochemical and technological processes responsible for the positive and negative (defects) descriptors of VOO are summarized in this chapter. An overview on the sensory methodologies proposed, applied and modified during the last 20 years is also presented.
Olive Oil – Constituents, Quality, Health Properties and Bioconversions
109
130
A. Bendini; E. Valli; S. Barbieri; Tullia Gallina Toschi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/111421
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