Virtualization is a key technology used in a wide range of applications, from cloud computing to embedded systems. Over the last few years, mainstream computer architectures were extended with hardware virtualization support, giving rise to a set of virtualization technologies (e.g., Intel VT and Arm VE) that are now proliferating in modern processors and systems on chip (SoCs). In this article, we describe our work on hardware virtualization support in the RISC-V CVA6 core. Our contribution is multifold and encompasses architecture, microarchitecture, and design space exploration (DSE). In particular, we highlight the design of a set of microarchitectural enhancements i.e., G-stage translation lookaside buffer (GTLB) and second-level TLB (L2 TLB) to alleviate the virtualization performance overhead. We also perform a DSE and accompanying postlayout simulations (based on 22-nm FDX technology) to assess performance, power, and area (PPA). Furthermore, we map design variants on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform (Genesys 2) to assess the functional performance-area tradeoff. Based on the DSE, we select an optimal design point for the CVA6 with hardware virtualization support. For this optimal hardware configuration, we collected functional performance results by running the MiBench benchmark on Linux atop Bao hypervisor for a single-core configuration. We observed a performance speedup of up to 16% (approximately 12.5% on average) compared with virtualization-aware nonoptimized design at the minimal cost of 0.78% in area and 0.33% in power. Finally, all works described in this article are publicly available and open-sourced for the community to further evaluate additional design configurations and software stacks.

CVA6 RISC-V Virtualization: Architecture, Microarchitecture, and Design Space Exploration

Valente, L;Rossi, D;Benini, L;
2023

Abstract

Virtualization is a key technology used in a wide range of applications, from cloud computing to embedded systems. Over the last few years, mainstream computer architectures were extended with hardware virtualization support, giving rise to a set of virtualization technologies (e.g., Intel VT and Arm VE) that are now proliferating in modern processors and systems on chip (SoCs). In this article, we describe our work on hardware virtualization support in the RISC-V CVA6 core. Our contribution is multifold and encompasses architecture, microarchitecture, and design space exploration (DSE). In particular, we highlight the design of a set of microarchitectural enhancements i.e., G-stage translation lookaside buffer (GTLB) and second-level TLB (L2 TLB) to alleviate the virtualization performance overhead. We also perform a DSE and accompanying postlayout simulations (based on 22-nm FDX technology) to assess performance, power, and area (PPA). Furthermore, we map design variants on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform (Genesys 2) to assess the functional performance-area tradeoff. Based on the DSE, we select an optimal design point for the CVA6 with hardware virtualization support. For this optimal hardware configuration, we collected functional performance results by running the MiBench benchmark on Linux atop Bao hypervisor for a single-core configuration. We observed a performance speedup of up to 16% (approximately 12.5% on average) compared with virtualization-aware nonoptimized design at the minimal cost of 0.78% in area and 0.33% in power. Finally, all works described in this article are publicly available and open-sourced for the community to further evaluate additional design configurations and software stacks.
2023
Sa, B; Valente, L; Martins, J; Rossi, D; Benini, L; Pinto, S
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
valente cva6 post print .pdf

accesso aperto

Tipo: Postprint
Licenza: Licenza per accesso libero gratuito
Dimensione 2.57 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.57 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/952940
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact