High-molecular-weight poly(butylene 2,4-furanoate) (2,4-PBF), an isomer of well-known poly(butylene 2,5-furanoate) (2,5-PBF), was synthesized through an eco-friendly solvent-free polycondensation process and processed in the form of an amorphous film by compression molding. Molecular characterization was carried out by NMR spectroscopy and GPC analysis, confirming the chemical structure and high polymerization degree. Thermal analyses evidenced a reduction of both glass-to-rubber transition and melting temperatures, as well as a detriment of crystallization capability, for 2,4-PBF with respect to 2,5-PBF. Nevertheless, it was possible to induce crystal phase formation by annealing treatment. Wide-angle X-ray scattering revealed that the crystal lattices developed in the two isomers are distinct from each other. The different isomerism affects also the thermal stability, being 2,4-PBF more thermally inert than 2,5-PBF. Functional properties, such as wettability, mechanical response, and gas barrier capability, were tested on both amorphous and semicrystalline 2,4-PBF films and compared with those of 2,5-PBF. Reduced hydrophilicity was determined for 2,4-isomer, in line with its lower average dipole moment, suggesting better chemical resistance to hydrolysis. Stress-strain tests have evidenced the higher flexibility and toughness of 2,4-PBF with respect to those of 2,5-PBF and the possibility of improving its mechanical resistance by annealing. Finally, the different isomerism deeply affects the gas barrier performance, being the O2- and CO2-transmission rates of 2,4-PBF 50 and 110 times lower, respectively, than those of 2,5-PBF. The gas barrier properties turned out to be outstanding under a dry atmosphere as well as in humid conditions, suggesting the presence of interchain hydrogen bonds. The gas blocking capability decreases after annealing because of the presence of disclination associated with the formation of crystals.

Poly(butylene 2,4-furanoate), an Added Member to the Class of Smart Furan-Based Polyesters for Sustainable Packaging: Structural Isomerism as a Key to Tune the Final Properties

Bianchi E.;Soccio M.;Siracusa V.;Gazzano M.;Lotti N.
2021

Abstract

High-molecular-weight poly(butylene 2,4-furanoate) (2,4-PBF), an isomer of well-known poly(butylene 2,5-furanoate) (2,5-PBF), was synthesized through an eco-friendly solvent-free polycondensation process and processed in the form of an amorphous film by compression molding. Molecular characterization was carried out by NMR spectroscopy and GPC analysis, confirming the chemical structure and high polymerization degree. Thermal analyses evidenced a reduction of both glass-to-rubber transition and melting temperatures, as well as a detriment of crystallization capability, for 2,4-PBF with respect to 2,5-PBF. Nevertheless, it was possible to induce crystal phase formation by annealing treatment. Wide-angle X-ray scattering revealed that the crystal lattices developed in the two isomers are distinct from each other. The different isomerism affects also the thermal stability, being 2,4-PBF more thermally inert than 2,5-PBF. Functional properties, such as wettability, mechanical response, and gas barrier capability, were tested on both amorphous and semicrystalline 2,4-PBF films and compared with those of 2,5-PBF. Reduced hydrophilicity was determined for 2,4-isomer, in line with its lower average dipole moment, suggesting better chemical resistance to hydrolysis. Stress-strain tests have evidenced the higher flexibility and toughness of 2,4-PBF with respect to those of 2,5-PBF and the possibility of improving its mechanical resistance by annealing. Finally, the different isomerism deeply affects the gas barrier performance, being the O2- and CO2-transmission rates of 2,4-PBF 50 and 110 times lower, respectively, than those of 2,5-PBF. The gas barrier properties turned out to be outstanding under a dry atmosphere as well as in humid conditions, suggesting the presence of interchain hydrogen bonds. The gas blocking capability decreases after annealing because of the presence of disclination associated with the formation of crystals.
ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING
Bianchi E.; Soccio M.; Siracusa V.; Gazzano M.; Thiyagarajan S.; Lotti N.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/850741
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