The fastidious nature of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae limits an accurate in vitro pre-screening of conventionally used antibiotics and other candidate alternative antimicrobials. This results in a non-judicious use of antibiotics, leading to an exponential increase of the antibiotic resistance issue and a slowdown in the research for new molecules that might stop this serious phenomenon. In this study we tested four antibiotics (tylosin, lincomycin, doxycycline, and tiamulin) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, and dodecanoic acid) against an Italian field strain of B. hyodysenteriae and the ATCC 27164 strain as reference. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these substances, underlining the multidrug resistance pattern of the field strain and, on the contrary, a consistent and stable inhibitory effect of the tested MCFA against both strains. Then, sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics and MCFA were examined in modulating a panel of B. hyodysenteriae virulence genes (tlyA, tlyB, bhlp16, bhlp29.7, and bhmp39f). Results of gene expression analysis were variable, with up- and downregulations not properly correlated with particular substances or target genes. Decanoic and dodecanoic acid with their direct and indirect antimicrobial property were the most effective among MCFA, suggesting them as good candidates for subsequent in vivo trials.

Dual Antimicrobial Effect of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids against an Italian Multidrug Resistant Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Strain

Giovagnoni, Giulia;Piva, Andrea;Grilli, Ester
2022

Abstract

The fastidious nature of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae limits an accurate in vitro pre-screening of conventionally used antibiotics and other candidate alternative antimicrobials. This results in a non-judicious use of antibiotics, leading to an exponential increase of the antibiotic resistance issue and a slowdown in the research for new molecules that might stop this serious phenomenon. In this study we tested four antibiotics (tylosin, lincomycin, doxycycline, and tiamulin) and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, and dodecanoic acid) against an Italian field strain of B. hyodysenteriae and the ATCC 27164 strain as reference. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these substances, underlining the multidrug resistance pattern of the field strain and, on the contrary, a consistent and stable inhibitory effect of the tested MCFA against both strains. Then, sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics and MCFA were examined in modulating a panel of B. hyodysenteriae virulence genes (tlyA, tlyB, bhlp16, bhlp29.7, and bhmp39f). Results of gene expression analysis were variable, with up- and downregulations not properly correlated with particular substances or target genes. Decanoic and dodecanoic acid with their direct and indirect antimicrobial property were the most effective among MCFA, suggesting them as good candidates for subsequent in vivo trials.
Giovagnoni, Giulia; Tugnoli, Benedetta; Piva, Andrea; Grilli, Ester
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/849365
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