In the past decade, the poultry industry has faced the occurrence of growth-related muscular abnormalities that mainly affect, with a high incidence rate, the Pectoralis major of the fast-growing genotypes selected for their production performances (high growth rate and breast yield). These myopathies are termed as White Striping, Wooden Breast, and Spaghetti Meat and exhibit distinctive phenotypes. A spatiotemporal distribution has been demonstrated for these disorders as in the early stage they primarily affect the superficial area in the cranial portion of the muscle and, as the birds grow older, involve the entire tissue. Aside from their distinctive phenotypes, these myopathies share common histological features. Thus, it might be speculated that common causative mechanisms might be responsible for the physiological and structural perturbations in the muscle associated with these conditions and might underpin their occurrence. The present review paper aims to represent a critical survey of the outcomes of all the histologic and ultrastructural observations carried out on White Striping, Wooden Breast, and Spaghetti Meat affected muscles. Our analysis has been performed by combining these outcomes with the findings of the genetic studies, trying to identify possible initial causative mechanisms triggering the onset and the time-series of the events ultimately resulting in the development and progression of the growth-related myopathies currently affecting broilers Pectoralis major muscles. Several evidences support the hypothesis that sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, primarily induced an accumulation of misfolded proteins (but also driven by other factors including altered calcium homeostasis and accumulation of fatty acids), may be responsible for the onset of these growth-related myopathies in broilers. At the same time, the development of hypoxic conditions, as a direct consequence of an inadequate vascularization, triggers a time-series sequence of events (i.e., phlebitis, oxidative stress, etc.) resulting in the activation of response mechanisms (i.e., modifications in the energetic metabolism, inflammation, degeneration, and regeneration) which are all strictly related to the progression of these myopathic disorders.

A critical review of the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of growth-related abnormalities affecting broiler chicken breast muscles / Soglia, F.; Petracci, M.; Davoli, R.; Zappaterra, M.. - In: POULTRY SCIENCE. - ISSN 0032-5791. - STAMPA. - 100:6(2021), pp. 101180.1-101180.20. [10.1016/j.psj.2021.101180]

A critical review of the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of growth-related abnormalities affecting broiler chicken breast muscles

Soglia, F.
Primo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Petracci, M.
Secondo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Davoli, R.
Penultimo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Zappaterra, M.
Ultimo
Writing – Review & Editing
2021

Abstract

In the past decade, the poultry industry has faced the occurrence of growth-related muscular abnormalities that mainly affect, with a high incidence rate, the Pectoralis major of the fast-growing genotypes selected for their production performances (high growth rate and breast yield). These myopathies are termed as White Striping, Wooden Breast, and Spaghetti Meat and exhibit distinctive phenotypes. A spatiotemporal distribution has been demonstrated for these disorders as in the early stage they primarily affect the superficial area in the cranial portion of the muscle and, as the birds grow older, involve the entire tissue. Aside from their distinctive phenotypes, these myopathies share common histological features. Thus, it might be speculated that common causative mechanisms might be responsible for the physiological and structural perturbations in the muscle associated with these conditions and might underpin their occurrence. The present review paper aims to represent a critical survey of the outcomes of all the histologic and ultrastructural observations carried out on White Striping, Wooden Breast, and Spaghetti Meat affected muscles. Our analysis has been performed by combining these outcomes with the findings of the genetic studies, trying to identify possible initial causative mechanisms triggering the onset and the time-series of the events ultimately resulting in the development and progression of the growth-related myopathies currently affecting broilers Pectoralis major muscles. Several evidences support the hypothesis that sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, primarily induced an accumulation of misfolded proteins (but also driven by other factors including altered calcium homeostasis and accumulation of fatty acids), may be responsible for the onset of these growth-related myopathies in broilers. At the same time, the development of hypoxic conditions, as a direct consequence of an inadequate vascularization, triggers a time-series sequence of events (i.e., phlebitis, oxidative stress, etc.) resulting in the activation of response mechanisms (i.e., modifications in the energetic metabolism, inflammation, degeneration, and regeneration) which are all strictly related to the progression of these myopathic disorders.
2021
A critical review of the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of growth-related abnormalities affecting broiler chicken breast muscles / Soglia, F.; Petracci, M.; Davoli, R.; Zappaterra, M.. - In: POULTRY SCIENCE. - ISSN 0032-5791. - STAMPA. - 100:6(2021), pp. 101180.1-101180.20. [10.1016/j.psj.2021.101180]
Soglia, F.; Petracci, M.; Davoli, R.; Zappaterra, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/820046
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