The open-source RISC-V instruction set architecture (ISA) is gaining traction, both in industry and academia. The ISA is designed to scale from microcontrollers to server-class processors. Furthermore, openness promotes the availability of various open-source and commercial implementations. Our main contribution in this paper is a thorough power, performance, and efficiency analysis of the RISC-V ISA targeting baseline "application class" functionality, i.e., supporting the Linux OS and its application environment based on our open-source single-issue in-order implementation of the 64-bit ISA variant (RV64GC) called Ariane. Our analysis is based on a detailed power and efficiency analysis of the RISC-V ISA extracted from silicon measurements and calibrated simulation of an Ariane instance (RV64IMC) taped-out in GlobalFoundries 22FDX technology. Ariane runs at up to 1.7-GHz, achieves up to 40-Gop/sW energy efficiency, which is superior to similar cores presented in the literature. We provide insight into the interplay between functionality required for the application-class execution (e.g., virtual memory, caches, and multiple modes of privileged operation) and energy cost. We also compare Ariane with RISCY, a simpler and a slower microcontroller-class core. Our analysis confirms that supporting application-class execution implies a nonnegligible energy-efficiency loss and that compute performance is more cost-effectively boosted by instruction extensions (e.g., packed SIMD) rather than the high-frequency operation.

The Cost of Application-Class Processing: Energy and Performance Analysis of a Linux-Ready 1.7-GHz 64-Bit RISC-V Core in 22-nm FDSOI Technology

Benini L.
2019

Abstract

The open-source RISC-V instruction set architecture (ISA) is gaining traction, both in industry and academia. The ISA is designed to scale from microcontrollers to server-class processors. Furthermore, openness promotes the availability of various open-source and commercial implementations. Our main contribution in this paper is a thorough power, performance, and efficiency analysis of the RISC-V ISA targeting baseline "application class" functionality, i.e., supporting the Linux OS and its application environment based on our open-source single-issue in-order implementation of the 64-bit ISA variant (RV64GC) called Ariane. Our analysis is based on a detailed power and efficiency analysis of the RISC-V ISA extracted from silicon measurements and calibrated simulation of an Ariane instance (RV64IMC) taped-out in GlobalFoundries 22FDX technology. Ariane runs at up to 1.7-GHz, achieves up to 40-Gop/sW energy efficiency, which is superior to similar cores presented in the literature. We provide insight into the interplay between functionality required for the application-class execution (e.g., virtual memory, caches, and multiple modes of privileged operation) and energy cost. We also compare Ariane with RISCY, a simpler and a slower microcontroller-class core. Our analysis confirms that supporting application-class execution implies a nonnegligible energy-efficiency loss and that compute performance is more cost-effectively boosted by instruction extensions (e.g., packed SIMD) rather than the high-frequency operation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/724613
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