Introduction: The Deficiens Homologue 9-iaaM (DefH9-iaaM) gene is an ovule-specific auxin-synthesizing gene which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis. It was introduced into the genome of two grape cultivars Thompson Seedless and Silcora and both transgenic cultivars had an increased number of berries per bunch. Objectives: This study investigates the down-stream metabolic changes of Silcora and Thompson seedless grape cultivars when genetically modified through the insertion of the DefH9-iaaM gene into their genome. Methods: The effects of the genetic modification upon the grape metabolome were evaluated through 1H-NMR and exploratory data analysis. Chemometric tools such as Interval Partial Least Squares regression and metabolite heatmaps were employed for scrutinizing the changes in the transgenic metabolome as compared to the wild type one. Results: The results show that the pleiotropic effect on the grape metabolome as a function of the gene modifications is relatively low, although the insertion of the transgene caused a decrement in malic acid and proline and an increment in p-coumaric acid content. In addition, the concentration of malic acid was successfully correlated with the number of inserted copies of transgene in the Silcora cultivar, proving that the increased production of berries, promoted by the inserted gene, is achieved at the expense of a decrement in malic acid concentration. Conclusion: NMR together with chemometrics is able to identify specific metabolites that were up- or down regulated in the genetically engineered plants allowing highlighting alterations in the down-stream metabolic pathways due to the up-stream genetic modifications.

Metabolic changes of genetically engineered grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) studied by 1H-NMR, metabolite heatmaps and iPLS

PICONE, GIANFRANCO;TRIMIGNO, ALESSIA;CAPOZZI, FRANCESCO;
2016

Abstract

Introduction: The Deficiens Homologue 9-iaaM (DefH9-iaaM) gene is an ovule-specific auxin-synthesizing gene which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis. It was introduced into the genome of two grape cultivars Thompson Seedless and Silcora and both transgenic cultivars had an increased number of berries per bunch. Objectives: This study investigates the down-stream metabolic changes of Silcora and Thompson seedless grape cultivars when genetically modified through the insertion of the DefH9-iaaM gene into their genome. Methods: The effects of the genetic modification upon the grape metabolome were evaluated through 1H-NMR and exploratory data analysis. Chemometric tools such as Interval Partial Least Squares regression and metabolite heatmaps were employed for scrutinizing the changes in the transgenic metabolome as compared to the wild type one. Results: The results show that the pleiotropic effect on the grape metabolome as a function of the gene modifications is relatively low, although the insertion of the transgene caused a decrement in malic acid and proline and an increment in p-coumaric acid content. In addition, the concentration of malic acid was successfully correlated with the number of inserted copies of transgene in the Silcora cultivar, proving that the increased production of berries, promoted by the inserted gene, is achieved at the expense of a decrement in malic acid concentration. Conclusion: NMR together with chemometrics is able to identify specific metabolites that were up- or down regulated in the genetically engineered plants allowing highlighting alterations in the down-stream metabolic pathways due to the up-stream genetic modifications.
Picone, Gianfranco; Savorani, Francesco; Trimigno, Alessia; Mezzetti, Bruno; Capozzi, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/562973
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