AbstractEpilepsy is a highly heritable disorder affecting over 50 million people worldwide, of which about one-third are resistant to current treatments. Here, we report a trans-ethnic GWAS including 29,944 cases, stratified into three broad- and seven sub-types of epilepsy, and 52,538 controls. We identify 26 genome-wide significant loci, 19 of which are specific to genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). We implicate 29 likely causal genes underlying these 26 loci. SNP-based heritability analyses show that common variants substantially close the missing heritability gap for GGE. Subtype analysis revealed markedly different genetic architectures between focal and generalized epilepsies. Gene-set analysis of GGE signals implicate synaptic processes in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the brain. Prioritized candidate genes overlap with monogenic epilepsy genes and with targets of current anti-seizure medications. Finally, we leverage our results to identify alternate drugs with predicted efficacy if repurposed for epilepsy treatment.

Genome-wide meta-analysis of over 29,000 people with epilepsy reveals 26 loci and subtype-specific genetic architecture / Remi Stevelink, Ciarán Campbell, Siwei Chen, Bassel Abou-Khalil, Oluyomi M. Adesoji, Zaid Afawi, Elisabetta Amadori, Alison Anderson, Joseph Anderson, Danielle M. Andrade, Grazia Annesi, Pauls Auce, Andreja Avbersek, Melanie Bahlo, Mark D. Baker, Ganna Balagura, Simona Balestrini, Carmen Barba, Karen Barboza,Fabrice Bartolomei, Thomas Bast, Larry Baum, Tobias Baumgartner, Betül Baykan, Nerses Bebek, Albert J. Becker33, Felicitas Becker34, Caitlin A. Bennett, Bianca Berghuis36, Samuel F. Berkovic ✉, Ahmad Beydoun37, Claudia Bianchini23, Francesca Bisulli, Ilan Blatt8,40, Dheeraj R. Bobbili41, Ingo Borggraefe42,43, Christian Bosselmann44, Vera Braatz17,22, Jonathan P. Bradfield45,46, Knut Brockmann47, Lawrence C. Brody48, Russell J. Buono45,49,50, Robyn M. Busch51,52,53, Hande Caglayan54, Ellen Campbell55, Laura Canafoglia56, Christina Canavati57, Gregory D. Cascino58, Barbara Castellotti59, Claudia B. Catarino17, Gianpiero L. Cavalleri2,3 ✉, Felecia Cerrato60, Francine Chassoux61, Stacey S. Cherny28,62, Ching-Lung Cheung63, Krishna Chinthapalli17, I-Jun Chou64, Seo-Kyung Chung65,66, Claire Churchhouse4,5,60, Peggy O. Clark67, Andrew J. Cole68, Alastair Compston69, Antonietta Coppola70, Mahgenn Cosico71,72, Patrick Cossette73, John J. Craig74, Caroline Cusick60, Mark J. Daly4,5,60,75, Lea K. Davis76,77,78,79, Gerrit-Jan de Haan80, Norman Delanty2,3,81, Chantal Depondt82, Philippe Derambure83, Orrin Devinsky84, Lidia Di Vito38, Dennis J. Dlugos71, Viola Doccini23, Colin P. Doherty3,85, Hany El-Naggar2,3,81, Christian E. Elger30, Colin A. Ellis86, Johan G. Eriksson87, Annika Faucon88, Yen-Chen A. Feng4,5,60,89,90, Lisa Ferguson52, Thomas N. Ferraro49,91, Lorenzo Ferri, Martha Feucht92, Mark Fitzgerald71,72,86, Beata Fonferko-Shadrach21, Francesco Fortunato93, Silvana Franceschetti94, Andre Franke95, Jacqueline A. French96, Elena Freri97, Monica Gagliardi98, Antonio Gambardella93, Eric B. Geller99, Tania Giangregorio38, Leif Gjerstad100, Tracy Glauser67, Ethan Goldberg71,72, Alicia Goldman101, Tiziana Granata97, David A. Greenberg102, Renzo Guerrini23, Namrata Gupta5, Kevin F. Haas6, Hakon Hakonarson45,103, Kerstin Hallmann30,104, Emadeldin Hassanin41,105, Manu Hegde106, Erin L. Heinzen107,108, Ingo Helbig71,72,86,95,109,110, Christian Hengsbach44, Henrike O. Heyne5,75,111,112, Shinichi Hirose113, Edouard Hirsch114, Helle Hjalgrim115,116, Daniel P. Howrigan4,5,60, Donald Hucks76,79, Po-Cheng Hung64, Michele Iacomino10, Lukas L. Imbach117, Yushi Inoue118, Atsushi Ishii119, Jennifer Jamnadas-Khoda17,120, Lara Jehi52,53, Michael R. Johnson121, Reetta Kälviäinen122,123, Yoichiro Kamatani124, Moien Kanaan57, Masahiro Kanai125,126, Anne-Mari Kantanen122, Bülent Kara127, Symon M. Kariuki128,129,130, Dalia Kasperavičiūte17, Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite1, Mitsuhiro Kato131, Josua Kegele44, Yeşim Kesim31, Nathalie Khoueiry-Zgheib132, Chontelle King133, Heidi E. Kirsch106, Karl M. Klein134,135,136,137, Gerhard Kluger138,139, Susanne Knake134,137, Robert C. Knowlton106, Bobby P. C. Koeleman1 ✉, Amos D. Korczyn8, Andreas Koupparis140, Ioanna Kousiappa140, Roland Krause41, Martin Krenn141, Heinz Krestel135,137,142,143, Ilona Krey144, Wolfram S. Kunz30,145, Mitja I. Kurki4,5,60,75, Gerhard Kurlemann146, Ruben Kuzniecky147, Patrick Kwan11,12,148, Angelo Labate149, Austin Lacey2,3,81, Dennis Lal51,52,60, Zied Landoulsi41, Yu-Lung Lau150, Stephen Lauxmann44, Stephanie L. Leech35, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki151, Johannes R. Lemke144, Holger Lerche44, Gaetan Lesca152, Costin Leu17,51,60, Naomi Lewin71,72, David Lewis-Smith71,110,153,154, Gloria H.-Y. Li63,155, Qingqin S. Li156, Laura Licchetta, Kuang-Lin Lin64, Dick Lindhout1,80, Tarja Linnankivi157,158,159, Iscia Lopes-Cendes160, Daniel H. Lowenstein106, Colin H. T. Lui161, Francesca Madia10, Sigurdur Magnusson162, Anthony G. Marson163, Patrick May41, Christopher M. McGraw68, Davide Mei23, James L. Mills164, Raffaella Minardi, Nasir Mirza163, Rikke S. Møller115,116, Anne M. Molloy165, Martino Montomoli23, Barbara Mostacci, Lorenzo Muccioli, Hiltrud Muhle109, Karen Müller-Schlüter166, Imad M. Najm52,53, Wassim Nasreddine37, Benjamin M. Neale4,5,60, Bernd Neubauer167, Charles R. J. C. Newton128,129,130, Markus M. Nöthen168, Michael Nothnagel7,169, Peter Nürnberg7, Terence J. O’Brien11,12, Yukinori Okada126,170, Elías Ólafsson171, Karen L. Oliver18,19,35, Çiğdem Özkara172, Aarno Palotie4,5,60,75, Faith Pangilinan48, Savvas S. Papacostas140, Elena Parrini23, Carlos N. Pato173, Michele T. Pato173, Manuela Pendziwiat95,109, Slavé Petrovski11,174, William O. Pickrell21,175, Rebecca Pinsky176, Tommaso Pippucci, Annapurna Poduri176, Federica Pondrelli, Rob H. W. Powell175, Michael Privitera178, Annika Rademacher109, Rodney Radtke179, Francesca Ragona97, Sarah Rau44, Mark I. Rees66,180, Brigid M. Regan35, Philipp S. Reif134,135,137, Sylvain Rhelms181,182, Antonella Riva9,10, Felix Rosenow134,135,137, Philippe Ryvlin183, Anni Saarela122,123, Lynette G. Sadleir133, Josemir W. Sander17,22,80, Thomas Sander7,184, Marcello Scala9,10, Theresa Scattergood185, Steven C. Schachter186, Christoph J. Schankin142,187, Ingrid E. Scheffer35,188, Bettina Schmitz184, Susanne Schoch33, Susanne Schubert-Bast135,137, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage189, Paolo Scudieri9,10, Pak Sham28, Beth R. Sheidley176, Jerry J. Shih190, Graeme J. Sills191, Sanjay M. Sisodiya17,22, Michael C. Smith192, Philip E. Smith193, Anja C. M. Sonsma1, Doug Speed194,195, Michael R. Sperling196, Hreinn Stefansson162, Kári Stefansson162, Bernhard J. Steinhoff26,27, Ulrich Stephani109, William C. Stewart197,198, Carlotta Stipa38, Pasquale Striano9,10, Hans Stroink199, Adam Strzelczyk134,135,137, Rainer Surges30, Toshimitsu Suzuki200,201, K. Meng Tan11, R. S. Taneja6, George A. Tanteles140, Erik Taubøll100, Liu Lin Thio202, G. Neil Thomas203, Rhys H. Thomas153,154, Oskari Timonen123, Paolo Tinuper, Marian Todaro11,12, Pınar Topaloğlu204, Rossana Tozzi205, Meng-Han Tsai206, Birute Tumiene207,208, Dilsad Turkdogan209, Unnur Unnsteinsdóttir162, Algirdas Utkus208, Priya Vaidiswaran71,72, Luc Valton210, Andreas van Baalen109, Annalisa Vetro23, Eileen P. G. Vining211, Frank Visscher212, Sophie von Brauchitsch135,137, Randi von Wrede30, Ryan G. Wagner213, Yvonne G. Weber44,214, Sarah Weckhuysen215,216,217, Judith Weisenberg202, Michael Weller218, Peter Widdess-Walsh2,3,81, Markus Wolff219, Stefan Wolking214, David Wu88, Kazuhiro Yamakawa200,201, Wanling Yang150, Zuhal Yapıcı204, Emrah Yücesan220, Sara Zagaglia17,22, Felix Zahnert134, Federico Zara9,10, Wei Zhou4,5,60, Fritz Zimprich141, Gábor Zsurka30,145 & Quratulain Zulfiqar Ali14. - In: NATURE GENETICS. - ISSN 1061-4036. - ELETTRONICO. - 55:9(2023), pp. 1471-1482. [10.1101/2022.06.08.22276120]

Genome-wide meta-analysis of over 29,000 people with epilepsy reveals 26 loci and subtype-specific genetic architecture

Francesca Bisulli;Lorenzo Ferri;Laura Licchetta;Raffaella Minardi;Barbara Mostacci;Lorenzo Muccioli;Tommaso Pippucci;Federica Pondrelli;Paolo Tinuper;
2023

Abstract

AbstractEpilepsy is a highly heritable disorder affecting over 50 million people worldwide, of which about one-third are resistant to current treatments. Here, we report a trans-ethnic GWAS including 29,944 cases, stratified into three broad- and seven sub-types of epilepsy, and 52,538 controls. We identify 26 genome-wide significant loci, 19 of which are specific to genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). We implicate 29 likely causal genes underlying these 26 loci. SNP-based heritability analyses show that common variants substantially close the missing heritability gap for GGE. Subtype analysis revealed markedly different genetic architectures between focal and generalized epilepsies. Gene-set analysis of GGE signals implicate synaptic processes in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the brain. Prioritized candidate genes overlap with monogenic epilepsy genes and with targets of current anti-seizure medications. Finally, we leverage our results to identify alternate drugs with predicted efficacy if repurposed for epilepsy treatment.
2023
Genome-wide meta-analysis of over 29,000 people with epilepsy reveals 26 loci and subtype-specific genetic architecture / Remi Stevelink, Ciarán Campbell, Siwei Chen, Bassel Abou-Khalil, Oluyomi M. Adesoji, Zaid Afawi, Elisabetta Amadori, Alison Anderson, Joseph Anderson, Danielle M. Andrade, Grazia Annesi, Pauls Auce, Andreja Avbersek, Melanie Bahlo, Mark D. Baker, Ganna Balagura, Simona Balestrini, Carmen Barba, Karen Barboza,Fabrice Bartolomei, Thomas Bast, Larry Baum, Tobias Baumgartner, Betül Baykan, Nerses Bebek, Albert J. Becker33, Felicitas Becker34, Caitlin A. Bennett, Bianca Berghuis36, Samuel F. Berkovic ✉, Ahmad Beydoun37, Claudia Bianchini23, Francesca Bisulli, Ilan Blatt8,40, Dheeraj R. Bobbili41, Ingo Borggraefe42,43, Christian Bosselmann44, Vera Braatz17,22, Jonathan P. Bradfield45,46, Knut Brockmann47, Lawrence C. Brody48, Russell J. Buono45,49,50, Robyn M. Busch51,52,53, Hande Caglayan54, Ellen Campbell55, Laura Canafoglia56, Christina Canavati57, Gregory D. Cascino58, Barbara Castellotti59, Claudia B. Catarino17, Gianpiero L. Cavalleri2,3 ✉, Felecia Cerrato60, Francine Chassoux61, Stacey S. Cherny28,62, Ching-Lung Cheung63, Krishna Chinthapalli17, I-Jun Chou64, Seo-Kyung Chung65,66, Claire Churchhouse4,5,60, Peggy O. Clark67, Andrew J. Cole68, Alastair Compston69, Antonietta Coppola70, Mahgenn Cosico71,72, Patrick Cossette73, John J. Craig74, Caroline Cusick60, Mark J. Daly4,5,60,75, Lea K. Davis76,77,78,79, Gerrit-Jan de Haan80, Norman Delanty2,3,81, Chantal Depondt82, Philippe Derambure83, Orrin Devinsky84, Lidia Di Vito38, Dennis J. Dlugos71, Viola Doccini23, Colin P. Doherty3,85, Hany El-Naggar2,3,81, Christian E. Elger30, Colin A. Ellis86, Johan G. Eriksson87, Annika Faucon88, Yen-Chen A. Feng4,5,60,89,90, Lisa Ferguson52, Thomas N. Ferraro49,91, Lorenzo Ferri, Martha Feucht92, Mark Fitzgerald71,72,86, Beata Fonferko-Shadrach21, Francesco Fortunato93, Silvana Franceschetti94, Andre Franke95, Jacqueline A. French96, Elena Freri97, Monica Gagliardi98, Antonio Gambardella93, Eric B. Geller99, Tania Giangregorio38, Leif Gjerstad100, Tracy Glauser67, Ethan Goldberg71,72, Alicia Goldman101, Tiziana Granata97, David A. Greenberg102, Renzo Guerrini23, Namrata Gupta5, Kevin F. Haas6, Hakon Hakonarson45,103, Kerstin Hallmann30,104, Emadeldin Hassanin41,105, Manu Hegde106, Erin L. Heinzen107,108, Ingo Helbig71,72,86,95,109,110, Christian Hengsbach44, Henrike O. Heyne5,75,111,112, Shinichi Hirose113, Edouard Hirsch114, Helle Hjalgrim115,116, Daniel P. Howrigan4,5,60, Donald Hucks76,79, Po-Cheng Hung64, Michele Iacomino10, Lukas L. Imbach117, Yushi Inoue118, Atsushi Ishii119, Jennifer Jamnadas-Khoda17,120, Lara Jehi52,53, Michael R. Johnson121, Reetta Kälviäinen122,123, Yoichiro Kamatani124, Moien Kanaan57, Masahiro Kanai125,126, Anne-Mari Kantanen122, Bülent Kara127, Symon M. Kariuki128,129,130, Dalia Kasperavičiūte17, Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite1, Mitsuhiro Kato131, Josua Kegele44, Yeşim Kesim31, Nathalie Khoueiry-Zgheib132, Chontelle King133, Heidi E. Kirsch106, Karl M. Klein134,135,136,137, Gerhard Kluger138,139, Susanne Knake134,137, Robert C. Knowlton106, Bobby P. C. Koeleman1 ✉, Amos D. Korczyn8, Andreas Koupparis140, Ioanna Kousiappa140, Roland Krause41, Martin Krenn141, Heinz Krestel135,137,142,143, Ilona Krey144, Wolfram S. Kunz30,145, Mitja I. Kurki4,5,60,75, Gerhard Kurlemann146, Ruben Kuzniecky147, Patrick Kwan11,12,148, Angelo Labate149, Austin Lacey2,3,81, Dennis Lal51,52,60, Zied Landoulsi41, Yu-Lung Lau150, Stephen Lauxmann44, Stephanie L. Leech35, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki151, Johannes R. Lemke144, Holger Lerche44, Gaetan Lesca152, Costin Leu17,51,60, Naomi Lewin71,72, David Lewis-Smith71,110,153,154, Gloria H.-Y. Li63,155, Qingqin S. Li156, Laura Licchetta, Kuang-Lin Lin64, Dick Lindhout1,80, Tarja Linnankivi157,158,159, Iscia Lopes-Cendes160, Daniel H. Lowenstein106, Colin H. T. Lui161, Francesca Madia10, Sigurdur Magnusson162, Anthony G. Marson163, Patrick May41, Christopher M. McGraw68, Davide Mei23, James L. Mills164, Raffaella Minardi, Nasir Mirza163, Rikke S. Møller115,116, Anne M. Molloy165, Martino Montomoli23, Barbara Mostacci, Lorenzo Muccioli, Hiltrud Muhle109, Karen Müller-Schlüter166, Imad M. Najm52,53, Wassim Nasreddine37, Benjamin M. Neale4,5,60, Bernd Neubauer167, Charles R. J. C. Newton128,129,130, Markus M. Nöthen168, Michael Nothnagel7,169, Peter Nürnberg7, Terence J. O’Brien11,12, Yukinori Okada126,170, Elías Ólafsson171, Karen L. Oliver18,19,35, Çiğdem Özkara172, Aarno Palotie4,5,60,75, Faith Pangilinan48, Savvas S. Papacostas140, Elena Parrini23, Carlos N. Pato173, Michele T. Pato173, Manuela Pendziwiat95,109, Slavé Petrovski11,174, William O. Pickrell21,175, Rebecca Pinsky176, Tommaso Pippucci, Annapurna Poduri176, Federica Pondrelli, Rob H. W. Powell175, Michael Privitera178, Annika Rademacher109, Rodney Radtke179, Francesca Ragona97, Sarah Rau44, Mark I. Rees66,180, Brigid M. Regan35, Philipp S. Reif134,135,137, Sylvain Rhelms181,182, Antonella Riva9,10, Felix Rosenow134,135,137, Philippe Ryvlin183, Anni Saarela122,123, Lynette G. Sadleir133, Josemir W. Sander17,22,80, Thomas Sander7,184, Marcello Scala9,10, Theresa Scattergood185, Steven C. Schachter186, Christoph J. Schankin142,187, Ingrid E. Scheffer35,188, Bettina Schmitz184, Susanne Schoch33, Susanne Schubert-Bast135,137, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage189, Paolo Scudieri9,10, Pak Sham28, Beth R. Sheidley176, Jerry J. Shih190, Graeme J. Sills191, Sanjay M. Sisodiya17,22, Michael C. Smith192, Philip E. Smith193, Anja C. M. Sonsma1, Doug Speed194,195, Michael R. Sperling196, Hreinn Stefansson162, Kári Stefansson162, Bernhard J. Steinhoff26,27, Ulrich Stephani109, William C. Stewart197,198, Carlotta Stipa38, Pasquale Striano9,10, Hans Stroink199, Adam Strzelczyk134,135,137, Rainer Surges30, Toshimitsu Suzuki200,201, K. Meng Tan11, R. S. Taneja6, George A. Tanteles140, Erik Taubøll100, Liu Lin Thio202, G. Neil Thomas203, Rhys H. Thomas153,154, Oskari Timonen123, Paolo Tinuper, Marian Todaro11,12, Pınar Topaloğlu204, Rossana Tozzi205, Meng-Han Tsai206, Birute Tumiene207,208, Dilsad Turkdogan209, Unnur Unnsteinsdóttir162, Algirdas Utkus208, Priya Vaidiswaran71,72, Luc Valton210, Andreas van Baalen109, Annalisa Vetro23, Eileen P. G. Vining211, Frank Visscher212, Sophie von Brauchitsch135,137, Randi von Wrede30, Ryan G. Wagner213, Yvonne G. Weber44,214, Sarah Weckhuysen215,216,217, Judith Weisenberg202, Michael Weller218, Peter Widdess-Walsh2,3,81, Markus Wolff219, Stefan Wolking214, David Wu88, Kazuhiro Yamakawa200,201, Wanling Yang150, Zuhal Yapıcı204, Emrah Yücesan220, Sara Zagaglia17,22, Felix Zahnert134, Federico Zara9,10, Wei Zhou4,5,60, Fritz Zimprich141, Gábor Zsurka30,145 & Quratulain Zulfiqar Ali14. - In: NATURE GENETICS. - ISSN 1061-4036. - ELETTRONICO. - 55:9(2023), pp. 1471-1482. [10.1101/2022.06.08.22276120]
Remi Stevelink, Ciarán Campbell, Siwei Chen, Bassel Abou-Khalil, Oluyomi M. Adesoji, Zaid Afawi, Elisabetta Amadori, Alison Anderson, Joseph Anderson, Danielle M. Andrade, Grazia Annesi, Pauls Auce, Andreja Avbersek, Melanie Bahlo, Mark D. Baker, Ganna Balagura, Simona Balestrini, Carmen Barba, Karen Barboza,Fabrice Bartolomei, Thomas Bast, Larry Baum, Tobias Baumgartner, Betül Baykan, Nerses Bebek, Albert J. Becker33, Felicitas Becker34, Caitlin A. Bennett, Bianca Berghuis36, Samuel F. Berkovic ✉, Ahmad Beydoun37, Claudia Bianchini23, Francesca Bisulli, Ilan Blatt8,40, Dheeraj R. Bobbili41, Ingo Borggraefe42,43, Christian Bosselmann44, Vera Braatz17,22, Jonathan P. Bradfield45,46, Knut Brockmann47, Lawrence C. Brody48, Russell J. Buono45,49,50, Robyn M. Busch51,52,53, Hande Caglayan54, Ellen Campbell55, Laura Canafoglia56, Christina Canavati57, Gregory D. Cascino58, Barbara Castellotti59, Claudia B. Catarino17, Gianpiero L. Cavalleri2,3 ✉, Felecia Cerrato60, Francine Chassoux61, Stacey S. Cherny28,62, Ching-Lung Cheung63, Krishna Chinthapalli17, I-Jun Chou64, Seo-Kyung Chung65,66, Claire Churchhouse4,5,60, Peggy O. Clark67, Andrew J. Cole68, Alastair Compston69, Antonietta Coppola70, Mahgenn Cosico71,72, Patrick Cossette73, John J. Craig74, Caroline Cusick60, Mark J. Daly4,5,60,75, Lea K. Davis76,77,78,79, Gerrit-Jan de Haan80, Norman Delanty2,3,81, Chantal Depondt82, Philippe Derambure83, Orrin Devinsky84, Lidia Di Vito38, Dennis J. Dlugos71, Viola Doccini23, Colin P. Doherty3,85, Hany El-Naggar2,3,81, Christian E. Elger30, Colin A. Ellis86, Johan G. Eriksson87, Annika Faucon88, Yen-Chen A. Feng4,5,60,89,90, Lisa Ferguson52, Thomas N. Ferraro49,91, Lorenzo Ferri, Martha Feucht92, Mark Fitzgerald71,72,86, Beata Fonferko-Shadrach21, Francesco Fortunato93, Silvana Franceschetti94, Andre Franke95, Jacqueline A. French96, Elena Freri97, Monica Gagliardi98, Antonio Gambardella93, Eric B. Geller99, Tania Giangregorio38, Leif Gjerstad100, Tracy Glauser67, Ethan Goldberg71,72, Alicia Goldman101, Tiziana Granata97, David A. Greenberg102, Renzo Guerrini23, Namrata Gupta5, Kevin F. Haas6, Hakon Hakonarson45,103, Kerstin Hallmann30,104, Emadeldin Hassanin41,105, Manu Hegde106, Erin L. Heinzen107,108, Ingo Helbig71,72,86,95,109,110, Christian Hengsbach44, Henrike O. Heyne5,75,111,112, Shinichi Hirose113, Edouard Hirsch114, Helle Hjalgrim115,116, Daniel P. Howrigan4,5,60, Donald Hucks76,79, Po-Cheng Hung64, Michele Iacomino10, Lukas L. Imbach117, Yushi Inoue118, Atsushi Ishii119, Jennifer Jamnadas-Khoda17,120, Lara Jehi52,53, Michael R. Johnson121, Reetta Kälviäinen122,123, Yoichiro Kamatani124, Moien Kanaan57, Masahiro Kanai125,126, Anne-Mari Kantanen122, Bülent Kara127, Symon M. Kariuki128,129,130, Dalia Kasperavičiūte17, Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite1, Mitsuhiro Kato131, Josua Kegele44, Yeşim Kesim31, Nathalie Khoueiry-Zgheib132, Chontelle King133, Heidi E. Kirsch106, Karl M. Klein134,135,136,137, Gerhard Kluger138,139, Susanne Knake134,137, Robert C. Knowlton106, Bobby P. C. Koeleman1 ✉, Amos D. Korczyn8, Andreas Koupparis140, Ioanna Kousiappa140, Roland Krause41, Martin Krenn141, Heinz Krestel135,137,142,143, Ilona Krey144, Wolfram S. Kunz30,145, Mitja I. Kurki4,5,60,75, Gerhard Kurlemann146, Ruben Kuzniecky147, Patrick Kwan11,12,148, Angelo Labate149, Austin Lacey2,3,81, Dennis Lal51,52,60, Zied Landoulsi41, Yu-Lung Lau150, Stephen Lauxmann44, Stephanie L. Leech35, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki151, Johannes R. Lemke144, Holger Lerche44, Gaetan Lesca152, Costin Leu17,51,60, Naomi Lewin71,72, David Lewis-Smith71,110,153,154, Gloria H.-Y. Li63,155, Qingqin S. Li156, Laura Licchetta, Kuang-Lin Lin64, Dick Lindhout1,80, Tarja Linnankivi157,158,159, Iscia Lopes-Cendes160, Daniel H. Lowenstein106, Colin H. T. Lui161, Francesca Madia10, Sigurdur Magnusson162, Anthony G. Marson163, Patrick May41, Christopher M. McGraw68, Davide Mei23, James L. Mills164, Raffaella Minardi, Nasir Mirza163, Rikke S. Møller115,116, Anne M. Molloy165, Martino Montomoli23, Barbara Mostacci, Lorenzo Muccioli, Hiltrud Muhle109, Karen Müller-Schlüter166, Imad M. Najm52,53, Wassim Nasreddine37, Benjamin M. Neale4,5,60, Bernd Neubauer167, Charles R. J. C. Newton128,129,130, Markus M. Nöthen168, Michael Nothnagel7,169, Peter Nürnberg7, Terence J. O’Brien11,12, Yukinori Okada126,170, Elías Ólafsson171, Karen L. Oliver18,19,35, Çiğdem Özkara172, Aarno Palotie4,5,60,75, Faith Pangilinan48, Savvas S. Papacostas140, Elena Parrini23, Carlos N. Pato173, Michele T. Pato173, Manuela Pendziwiat95,109, Slavé Petrovski11,174, William O. Pickrell21,175, Rebecca Pinsky176, Tommaso Pippucci, Annapurna Poduri176, Federica Pondrelli, Rob H. W. Powell175, Michael Privitera178, Annika Rademacher109, Rodney Radtke179, Francesca Ragona97, Sarah Rau44, Mark I. Rees66,180, Brigid M. Regan35, Philipp S. Reif134,135,137, Sylvain Rhelms181,182, Antonella Riva9,10, Felix Rosenow134,135,137, Philippe Ryvlin183, Anni Saarela122,123, Lynette G. Sadleir133, Josemir W. Sander17,22,80, Thomas Sander7,184, Marcello Scala9,10, Theresa Scattergood185, Steven C. Schachter186, Christoph J. Schankin142,187, Ingrid E. Scheffer35,188, Bettina Schmitz184, Susanne Schoch33, Susanne Schubert-Bast135,137, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage189, Paolo Scudieri9,10, Pak Sham28, Beth R. Sheidley176, Jerry J. Shih190, Graeme J. Sills191, Sanjay M. Sisodiya17,22, Michael C. Smith192, Philip E. Smith193, Anja C. M. Sonsma1, Doug Speed194,195, Michael R. Sperling196, Hreinn Stefansson162, Kári Stefansson162, Bernhard J. Steinhoff26,27, Ulrich Stephani109, William C. Stewart197,198, Carlotta Stipa38, Pasquale Striano9,10, Hans Stroink199, Adam Strzelczyk134,135,137, Rainer Surges30, Toshimitsu Suzuki200,201, K. Meng Tan11, R. S. Taneja6, George A. Tanteles140, Erik Taubøll100, Liu Lin Thio202, G. Neil Thomas203, Rhys H. Thomas153,154, Oskari Timonen123, Paolo Tinuper, Marian Todaro11,12, Pınar Topaloğlu204, Rossana Tozzi205, Meng-Han Tsai206, Birute Tumiene207,208, Dilsad Turkdogan209, Unnur Unnsteinsdóttir162, Algirdas Utkus208, Priya Vaidiswaran71,72, Luc Valton210, Andreas van Baalen109, Annalisa Vetro23, Eileen P. G. Vining211, Frank Visscher212, Sophie von Brauchitsch135,137, Randi von Wrede30, Ryan G. Wagner213, Yvonne G. Weber44,214, Sarah Weckhuysen215,216,217, Judith Weisenberg202, Michael Weller218, Peter Widdess-Walsh2,3,81, Markus Wolff219, Stefan Wolking214, David Wu88, Kazuhiro Yamakawa200,201, Wanling Yang150, Zuhal Yapıcı204, Emrah Yücesan220, Sara Zagaglia17,22, Felix Zahnert134, Federico Zara9,10, Wei Zhou4,5,60, Fritz Zimprich141, Gábor Zsurka30,145 & Quratulain Zulfiqar Ali14
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