Background: Exopolysaccharides (EPS) secreted by beneficial lactobacilli exert a plethora of positive activities, but little is known about their effects on biofilms of opportunistic vaginal pathogens and especially on biofilms of lactobacilli themselves. Here, the EPS produced by six vaginal lactobacilli, belonging to Lactobacillus crispatus (BC1, BC4, BC5) and Lactobacillus gasseri (BC9, BC12, BC14) species were isolated from cultural supernatants and lyophilized. Results: Lactobacillus EPS were chemically characterized in terms of monosaccharide composition by liquid chromatography (LC) analysis coupled to UV and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Moreover, the ability of EPS (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/mL) to stimulate the biofilm formation of lactobacilli and to inhibit the formation of pathogens’ biofilms was evaluated by crystal violet (CV) staining and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Isolated EPS (yields 133–426 mg/L) were heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of d-mannose (40–52%) and d-glucose (11–30%). For the first time we demonstrated that Lactobacillus EPS were able to stimulate in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05) the formation of biofilms of ten strains belonging to L. crispatus, L. gasseri and Limosilactobacillus vaginalis species, in terms of cell viability (84–282% increase at 1 mg/mL) and especially biofilm biomass (40–195% increase at 1 mg/mL), quantified with MTT assay and CV staining, respectively. EPS released from L. crispatus and L. gasseri were found to better stimulate the biofilms of the same producer species rather than that of other species, including producing strains themselves and other strains. Conversely, the biofilm formation of bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus agalactiae) and fungal (Candida spp.) pathogens was inhibited. The anti-biofilm activity was dose-dependent and was more marked for L. gasseri-derived EPS (inhibition up to 86%, 70%, and 58% at 1 mg/mL, 0.5 mg/mL, and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively), whilst L. crispatus-derived EPS resulted overall less efficient (inhibition up to 58% at 1 mg/mL and 40% at 0.5 mg/mL) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Lactobacilli-derived EPS favour the biofilm formation of lactobacilli preventing, at the same time, that of opportunistic pathogens. These results support the possible employment of EPS as postbiotics in medicine as a therapeutic/preventive strategy to counteract vaginal infections.

Exopolysaccharides from vaginal lactobacilli modulate microbial biofilms / Giordani B.; Naldi M.; Croatti V.; Parolin C.; Erdogan U.; Bartolini M.; Vitali B.. - In: MICROBIAL CELL FACTORIES. - ISSN 1475-2859. - ELETTRONICO. - 22:1(2023), pp. 45.1-45.19. [10.1186/s12934-023-02053-x]

Exopolysaccharides from vaginal lactobacilli modulate microbial biofilms

Giordani B.;Naldi M.;Croatti V.;Parolin C.;Bartolini M.;Vitali B.
2023

Abstract

Background: Exopolysaccharides (EPS) secreted by beneficial lactobacilli exert a plethora of positive activities, but little is known about their effects on biofilms of opportunistic vaginal pathogens and especially on biofilms of lactobacilli themselves. Here, the EPS produced by six vaginal lactobacilli, belonging to Lactobacillus crispatus (BC1, BC4, BC5) and Lactobacillus gasseri (BC9, BC12, BC14) species were isolated from cultural supernatants and lyophilized. Results: Lactobacillus EPS were chemically characterized in terms of monosaccharide composition by liquid chromatography (LC) analysis coupled to UV and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Moreover, the ability of EPS (0.1, 0.5, 1 mg/mL) to stimulate the biofilm formation of lactobacilli and to inhibit the formation of pathogens’ biofilms was evaluated by crystal violet (CV) staining and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Isolated EPS (yields 133–426 mg/L) were heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of d-mannose (40–52%) and d-glucose (11–30%). For the first time we demonstrated that Lactobacillus EPS were able to stimulate in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05) the formation of biofilms of ten strains belonging to L. crispatus, L. gasseri and Limosilactobacillus vaginalis species, in terms of cell viability (84–282% increase at 1 mg/mL) and especially biofilm biomass (40–195% increase at 1 mg/mL), quantified with MTT assay and CV staining, respectively. EPS released from L. crispatus and L. gasseri were found to better stimulate the biofilms of the same producer species rather than that of other species, including producing strains themselves and other strains. Conversely, the biofilm formation of bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus agalactiae) and fungal (Candida spp.) pathogens was inhibited. The anti-biofilm activity was dose-dependent and was more marked for L. gasseri-derived EPS (inhibition up to 86%, 70%, and 58% at 1 mg/mL, 0.5 mg/mL, and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively), whilst L. crispatus-derived EPS resulted overall less efficient (inhibition up to 58% at 1 mg/mL and 40% at 0.5 mg/mL) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Lactobacilli-derived EPS favour the biofilm formation of lactobacilli preventing, at the same time, that of opportunistic pathogens. These results support the possible employment of EPS as postbiotics in medicine as a therapeutic/preventive strategy to counteract vaginal infections.
2023
Exopolysaccharides from vaginal lactobacilli modulate microbial biofilms / Giordani B.; Naldi M.; Croatti V.; Parolin C.; Erdogan U.; Bartolini M.; Vitali B.. - In: MICROBIAL CELL FACTORIES. - ISSN 1475-2859. - ELETTRONICO. - 22:1(2023), pp. 45.1-45.19. [10.1186/s12934-023-02053-x]
Giordani B.; Naldi M.; Croatti V.; Parolin C.; Erdogan U.; Bartolini M.; Vitali B.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/952422
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