BackgroundBloodstream infections are a matter of concern in small animal veterinary practice. Few reports are avaiable, especially regarding the role of opportunistic bacteria in becoming infectious. This report aims to add to the current veterinary literature on two opportunistic bacterial species (Enterococcus hirae and Enterobacter xiangfangensis) associated with bloodstream infections in small animals admitted to the Bologna University Veterinary Hospital.Case presentationIn the first case, a 15-year-old, immunocompromised, cardiopathic dog was admitted to the hospital for anorexia and diarrhea. The patient had a history of previous surgery and hospitalization. After three days, hyperthermia, leukopenia and hyperlactatemia were recorded, and blood culture revealed positivity for Enterococcus hirae, identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The patient's general conditions progressively worsened, and the patient was euthanized. In the second case, a 2-year-old cat with chronic ocular herpesvirus infection and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was admitted to the hospital for anorexia and hyperthermia. The cat was hospitalized one week before and received antimicrobial treatment for urinary tract infection by Staphylococcus felis. Hypokalemia and lymphopenia were also diagnosed. The patient progressively improved and was discharged after three days. On the same day, blood culture taken at admission revealed positivity for Enterobacter xiangfangensis, identified using MALDI-TOF MS. After five days, the patient returned with neurological symptoms, hypothermia and bradycardia, and was euthanized.ConclusionsIn small animal veterinary practice, the impact of opportunistic bacterial agents (such as E.hirae and E.xiangfangensis) on bloodstream infections remains unclear. As in human medicine, they can be contracted in every healthcare setting and considered hospital-acquired infections. In this report, we highlighted the threat they pose especially in patients with multiple risk factors. Rapid and accurate diagnostic tools (such as MALDI-TOF MS) could be particularly important for reducing the severity of the infections.

Two cases of bloodstream infections associated with opportunistic bacterial species (Enterococcus hirae and Enterobacter xiangfangensis) in companion animals

Scarpellini R.
;
Giunti M.;Pontiero A.;Savini F.;Esposito E.;Piva S.
2023

Abstract

BackgroundBloodstream infections are a matter of concern in small animal veterinary practice. Few reports are avaiable, especially regarding the role of opportunistic bacteria in becoming infectious. This report aims to add to the current veterinary literature on two opportunistic bacterial species (Enterococcus hirae and Enterobacter xiangfangensis) associated with bloodstream infections in small animals admitted to the Bologna University Veterinary Hospital.Case presentationIn the first case, a 15-year-old, immunocompromised, cardiopathic dog was admitted to the hospital for anorexia and diarrhea. The patient had a history of previous surgery and hospitalization. After three days, hyperthermia, leukopenia and hyperlactatemia were recorded, and blood culture revealed positivity for Enterococcus hirae, identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The patient's general conditions progressively worsened, and the patient was euthanized. In the second case, a 2-year-old cat with chronic ocular herpesvirus infection and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was admitted to the hospital for anorexia and hyperthermia. The cat was hospitalized one week before and received antimicrobial treatment for urinary tract infection by Staphylococcus felis. Hypokalemia and lymphopenia were also diagnosed. The patient progressively improved and was discharged after three days. On the same day, blood culture taken at admission revealed positivity for Enterobacter xiangfangensis, identified using MALDI-TOF MS. After five days, the patient returned with neurological symptoms, hypothermia and bradycardia, and was euthanized.ConclusionsIn small animal veterinary practice, the impact of opportunistic bacterial agents (such as E.hirae and E.xiangfangensis) on bloodstream infections remains unclear. As in human medicine, they can be contracted in every healthcare setting and considered hospital-acquired infections. In this report, we highlighted the threat they pose especially in patients with multiple risk factors. Rapid and accurate diagnostic tools (such as MALDI-TOF MS) could be particularly important for reducing the severity of the infections.
2023
Scarpellini R.; Giunti M.; Pontiero A.; Savini F.; Esposito E.; Piva S.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/926898
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