Oral live vaccines stimulate host immunity, but they could also affect intestinal mucosa development and gut microbiota of piglets during the postweaning. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an oral vaccine against Escherichia coli F4 and F18 (Coliprotec F4/F18®), on gut functionality and integrity, growth performance and health status of postweaning piglets. A total of 96 weaned piglets (23.30 ± 1.85 days of age; 7334 ± 1039 g BW) were divided into two groups (16 replicates/group; three piglets/replicate) as follows: (1) Control (CO), fed a standard diet (prestarter up to 14 days, then starter feed); (2) Treated (TRT): as CO but vaccinated with Coliprotec F4/F18® at weaning (day 0). Piglets were weighed at day 0 and weekly until day 35. Individual faecal score was recorded daily. Piglets were sacrificed at days 10 (1/3 of total) and 35 (2/3). Samples of jejunum mucosa and of cecum content were collected for morphometric, immunohistochemistry analysis and for microbiota profile analysis, respectively. Data were fitted using a linear model including treatment, class of starting BW as fixed factors and litter as random factor. From days 0 to 7, piglets from the TRT group tended to have a higher average daily gain (+22.6%, P = 0.08) and average daily feed intake compared to the CO group (+13.2%, P = 0.022). Gain to feed ratio was lower in the TRT group from days 14 to 35 (-6.6%, P = 0.011). From days 7 to 14, the TRT group had a higher diarrhoea index (-199%, P < 0.001). Crypt depth was higher in the CO group (+10.9%, P = 0.04) at day 10, but not at day 35. Jejunal expression of Claudin-4 (probability of having a score = 3) was higher in the TRT group at day 10 (CO = 1.50% vs TRT = 2.69%, P < 0.0001) and day 35 (CO = 1.29% vs TRT = 1.92%, P = 0.012). Oral vaccine affected beta diversity at day 10 (P = 0.040; R2 = 0.05) and increased the abundance of specific taxa and genera in the cecum at day 10, including Prevotella (lg2FC = 23.2, FDR < 0.001). The results showed how an Escherichia coli-based vaccine supplied to weaned pigs can promote gut health by controlling symptoms of the postweaning perturbation in the first 2 weeks postweaning. In addition, the vaccine strains showed a probiotic-like effect by modulating gut microbiota favouring the establishment of beneficial bacteria, and by promoting gut barrier integrity.

Effect of an Escherichia coli F4/F18 bivalent oral live vaccine on gut health and performance of healthy weaned pigs

Correa, F
Primo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Luise, D
Secondo
;
Amatucci, L
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Palumbo, F
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Virdis, S
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Negrini, C
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Clavenzani, P
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Mazzoni, M
Formal Analysis
;
Bosi, P
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Trevisi, P
Ultimo
Conceptualization
2022

Abstract

Oral live vaccines stimulate host immunity, but they could also affect intestinal mucosa development and gut microbiota of piglets during the postweaning. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an oral vaccine against Escherichia coli F4 and F18 (Coliprotec F4/F18®), on gut functionality and integrity, growth performance and health status of postweaning piglets. A total of 96 weaned piglets (23.30 ± 1.85 days of age; 7334 ± 1039 g BW) were divided into two groups (16 replicates/group; three piglets/replicate) as follows: (1) Control (CO), fed a standard diet (prestarter up to 14 days, then starter feed); (2) Treated (TRT): as CO but vaccinated with Coliprotec F4/F18® at weaning (day 0). Piglets were weighed at day 0 and weekly until day 35. Individual faecal score was recorded daily. Piglets were sacrificed at days 10 (1/3 of total) and 35 (2/3). Samples of jejunum mucosa and of cecum content were collected for morphometric, immunohistochemistry analysis and for microbiota profile analysis, respectively. Data were fitted using a linear model including treatment, class of starting BW as fixed factors and litter as random factor. From days 0 to 7, piglets from the TRT group tended to have a higher average daily gain (+22.6%, P = 0.08) and average daily feed intake compared to the CO group (+13.2%, P = 0.022). Gain to feed ratio was lower in the TRT group from days 14 to 35 (-6.6%, P = 0.011). From days 7 to 14, the TRT group had a higher diarrhoea index (-199%, P < 0.001). Crypt depth was higher in the CO group (+10.9%, P = 0.04) at day 10, but not at day 35. Jejunal expression of Claudin-4 (probability of having a score = 3) was higher in the TRT group at day 10 (CO = 1.50% vs TRT = 2.69%, P < 0.0001) and day 35 (CO = 1.29% vs TRT = 1.92%, P = 0.012). Oral vaccine affected beta diversity at day 10 (P = 0.040; R2 = 0.05) and increased the abundance of specific taxa and genera in the cecum at day 10, including Prevotella (lg2FC = 23.2, FDR < 0.001). The results showed how an Escherichia coli-based vaccine supplied to weaned pigs can promote gut health by controlling symptoms of the postweaning perturbation in the first 2 weeks postweaning. In addition, the vaccine strains showed a probiotic-like effect by modulating gut microbiota favouring the establishment of beneficial bacteria, and by promoting gut barrier integrity.
Correa, F; Luise, D; Amatucci, L; Palumbo, F; Virdis, S; Negrini, C; Clavenzani, P; Vecchi, M; Mazzoni, M; Bosi, P; Trevisi, P
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/905096
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