Background: The widespread use of ultrasonography has led to an increased number of incidentally detected small non-palpable lesions, with Leydig cell tumours representing the majority of them. Objectives: The ultrasonography, real-time elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography features of a large series of non-palpable testicular lesions were evaluated, focusing on the differences between Leydig cell tumours and other testicular masses. Materials and methods: Of the 4679 testicular ultrasonography examinations performed at the Authors’ Institution between January 2009 and December 2018, 78 patients (1.7%) were incidentally diagnosed with at least one non-palpable lesion and were enrolled. Thirteen patients (16.6%) declined surgery and were thus excluded. The remaining 65 underwent surgical resection with frozen section analysis. The conventional ultrasonography, colour Doppler, real-time elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed by a radiologist having more than 10 years of experience. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Results: Leydig cell tumours were detected in 32 patients, being the most frequent benign tumours (49.2%); of the non-Leydig cell tumours, 25 patients had malignant tumours, five non-neoplastic lesions and three other benign tumours. The Leydig cell tumour group had mostly infertility problems whereas the non-Leydig cell tumour group frequently experienced pain (p < 0.001). Leydig cell tumours were all hypoechoic (32/32, 100%; p = 0.002), more frequently presented with well-defined margins compared to non-Leydig cell tumours (30/32, 93.8% vs. 19/33, 57.6%; p = 0.001) and tended to be smaller than non-Leydig cell tumours (5.3 mm [standard deviation 2.7 mm] vs. 10.6 mm [standard deviation 3.8 mm], respectively; p < 0.001). The vascular pattern characterised by the rapid wash-in followed by the delayed wash-out observed during contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was significantly associated with the Leydig cell tumour histological diagnosis, even at multivariate analysis (odds ratio 480.5, p < 0.001), and yielded a high diagnostic accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.954, 95% confidence interval 0.903–1). Discussion: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy in identifying benign testicular lesions, such as Leydig cell tumours; they are the most common non-palpable tumours detected in infertile men and may benefit from enucleation.

Corcioni B., Brandi N., Marasco G., Gaudiano C., De Cinque A., Ciccarese F., et al. (2022). Multiparametric ultrasound for the diagnosis of Leydig cell tumours in non-palpable testicular lesions. ANDROLOGY, 10(7), 1387-1397 [10.1111/andr.13233].

Multiparametric ultrasound for the diagnosis of Leydig cell tumours in non-palpable testicular lesions

Corcioni B.;Brandi N.;Marasco G.;De Cinque A.;Ciccarese F.;Ercolino A.;Schiavina R.;Brunocilla E.;Golfieri R.
2022

Abstract

Background: The widespread use of ultrasonography has led to an increased number of incidentally detected small non-palpable lesions, with Leydig cell tumours representing the majority of them. Objectives: The ultrasonography, real-time elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography features of a large series of non-palpable testicular lesions were evaluated, focusing on the differences between Leydig cell tumours and other testicular masses. Materials and methods: Of the 4679 testicular ultrasonography examinations performed at the Authors’ Institution between January 2009 and December 2018, 78 patients (1.7%) were incidentally diagnosed with at least one non-palpable lesion and were enrolled. Thirteen patients (16.6%) declined surgery and were thus excluded. The remaining 65 underwent surgical resection with frozen section analysis. The conventional ultrasonography, colour Doppler, real-time elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were performed by a radiologist having more than 10 years of experience. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Results: Leydig cell tumours were detected in 32 patients, being the most frequent benign tumours (49.2%); of the non-Leydig cell tumours, 25 patients had malignant tumours, five non-neoplastic lesions and three other benign tumours. The Leydig cell tumour group had mostly infertility problems whereas the non-Leydig cell tumour group frequently experienced pain (p < 0.001). Leydig cell tumours were all hypoechoic (32/32, 100%; p = 0.002), more frequently presented with well-defined margins compared to non-Leydig cell tumours (30/32, 93.8% vs. 19/33, 57.6%; p = 0.001) and tended to be smaller than non-Leydig cell tumours (5.3 mm [standard deviation 2.7 mm] vs. 10.6 mm [standard deviation 3.8 mm], respectively; p < 0.001). The vascular pattern characterised by the rapid wash-in followed by the delayed wash-out observed during contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was significantly associated with the Leydig cell tumour histological diagnosis, even at multivariate analysis (odds ratio 480.5, p < 0.001), and yielded a high diagnostic accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.954, 95% confidence interval 0.903–1). Discussion: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy in identifying benign testicular lesions, such as Leydig cell tumours; they are the most common non-palpable tumours detected in infertile men and may benefit from enucleation.
2022
Corcioni B., Brandi N., Marasco G., Gaudiano C., De Cinque A., Ciccarese F., et al. (2022). Multiparametric ultrasound for the diagnosis of Leydig cell tumours in non-palpable testicular lesions. ANDROLOGY, 10(7), 1387-1397 [10.1111/andr.13233].
Corcioni B.; Brandi N.; Marasco G.; Gaudiano C.; De Cinque A.; Ciccarese F.; Ercolino A.; Schiavina R.; Brunocilla E.; Renzulli M.; Golfieri R....espandi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/899872
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