A new strategy to cause cell death in tumors might be the increase of intracellular polyamines at concentrations above their physiological values to trigger the production of oxidation metabolites at levels exceeding cell tolerance. To test this hypothesis, we prepared nanospermidine as a carrier for spermidine penetration into the cells, able to escape the polyamine transport system that strictly regulates intracellular polyamine levels. Nanospermidine was prepared by spermidine encapsulation in nanomicelles and was characterized by size, zeta potential, loading, dimensional stability to dilution, and stability to spermidine leakage. Antitumor activity, ROS production, and cell penetration ability were evaluated in vitro in two neuroblastoma cell lines (NLF and BR6). Nanospermidine was tested as a single agent and in combination with nanofenretinide. Free spermidine was also tested as a comparison. The results indicated that the nanomicelles successfully transported spermidine into the cells inducing cell death in a concentration range (150–200 uM) tenfold lower than that required to provide similar cytotoxicity with free spermidine (1500–2000 uM). Nanofenretinide provided a cytostatic effect in combination with the lowest nanospermidine concentrations evaluated and slightly improved nanospermidine cytotoxicity at the highest concentrations. These data suggest that nanospermidine has the potential to become a new approach in cancer treatment. At the cellular level, in fact, it exploits polyamine catabolism by means of biocompatible doses of spermidine and, in vivo settings, it can exploit the selective accumulation of nanomedicines at the tumor site. Nanofenretinide combination further improves its efficacy. Furthermore, the proven ability of spermidine to activate macrophages and lymphocytes suggests that nanospermidine could inhibit immunosuppression in the tumor environment.

Nanospermidine in Combination with Nanofenretinide Induces Cell Death in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

Rossi, Martina
Co-primo
;
Blasi, Paolo
Secondo
;
Farruggia, Giovanna
Penultimo
;
Orienti, Isabella
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

A new strategy to cause cell death in tumors might be the increase of intracellular polyamines at concentrations above their physiological values to trigger the production of oxidation metabolites at levels exceeding cell tolerance. To test this hypothesis, we prepared nanospermidine as a carrier for spermidine penetration into the cells, able to escape the polyamine transport system that strictly regulates intracellular polyamine levels. Nanospermidine was prepared by spermidine encapsulation in nanomicelles and was characterized by size, zeta potential, loading, dimensional stability to dilution, and stability to spermidine leakage. Antitumor activity, ROS production, and cell penetration ability were evaluated in vitro in two neuroblastoma cell lines (NLF and BR6). Nanospermidine was tested as a single agent and in combination with nanofenretinide. Free spermidine was also tested as a comparison. The results indicated that the nanomicelles successfully transported spermidine into the cells inducing cell death in a concentration range (150–200 uM) tenfold lower than that required to provide similar cytotoxicity with free spermidine (1500–2000 uM). Nanofenretinide provided a cytostatic effect in combination with the lowest nanospermidine concentrations evaluated and slightly improved nanospermidine cytotoxicity at the highest concentrations. These data suggest that nanospermidine has the potential to become a new approach in cancer treatment. At the cellular level, in fact, it exploits polyamine catabolism by means of biocompatible doses of spermidine and, in vivo settings, it can exploit the selective accumulation of nanomedicines at the tumor site. Nanofenretinide combination further improves its efficacy. Furthermore, the proven ability of spermidine to activate macrophages and lymphocytes suggests that nanospermidine could inhibit immunosuppression in the tumor environment.
Lodeserto, Pietro; Rossi, Martina; Blasi, Paolo; Farruggia, Giovanna; Orienti, Isabella
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/888976
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