Accumulating evidence suggests that high consumption of natural antioxidants promotes health by reducing oxidative stress and, thus, the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Similarly, fermentation of natural compounds with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), such as Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, enhances their beneficial properties as regulators of the immune, digestive, and cardiovascular system. We investigated the effects of fermentation with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum on the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of Pushgay berries (Vaccinium floribundum, Ericaceae family) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Polyphenol content was assayed by Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The effects of berries solutions on cell viability or proliferation were assessed by WST8 (2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, Trypan blue exclusion test, and Alamar blue assay. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by a cell-based chemiluminescent probe for the detection of intracellular H2O2 production in HUVECs. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression levels were investigated by RT-qPCR. Glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities, as markers of intracellular antioxidant defense, were evaluated by spectrophotometric analysis. The immunomodulatory activity was examined in RAW 264.7 by quantification of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha) by RT-qPCR. Data showed that fermentation of Pushgay berries (i) enhances the content of quercetin aglycone, and (ii) increases their intracellular antioxidant activity, as indicated by the reduction in H2O2-induced cell death and the decrease in H2O2-induced HO-1 gene expression in HUVECs treated for 24 h with fermented berries solution (10 mu g/mL). Moreover, treatment with Pushgay berries for 72 h (10 mu g/mL) promotes cells growth in RAW 264.7, and only fermented Pushgay berries increase the expression of iNOS in the same cell line. Taken together, our results show that LAB fermentation of Pushgay berries enhances their antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties.

Fermentation of Vaccinium floribundum Berries with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Reduces Oxidative Stress in Endothelial Cells and Modulates Macrophages Function

Punzo A
Secondo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Silla A
Investigation
;
Porru E
Investigation
;
Simoni P
Project Administration
;
Hrelia S
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Caliceti C.
Ultimo
Supervision
2022

Abstract

Accumulating evidence suggests that high consumption of natural antioxidants promotes health by reducing oxidative stress and, thus, the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Similarly, fermentation of natural compounds with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), such as Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, enhances their beneficial properties as regulators of the immune, digestive, and cardiovascular system. We investigated the effects of fermentation with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum on the antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of Pushgay berries (Vaccinium floribundum, Ericaceae family) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Polyphenol content was assayed by Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The effects of berries solutions on cell viability or proliferation were assessed by WST8 (2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, Trypan blue exclusion test, and Alamar blue assay. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by a cell-based chemiluminescent probe for the detection of intracellular H2O2 production in HUVECs. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression levels were investigated by RT-qPCR. Glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities, as markers of intracellular antioxidant defense, were evaluated by spectrophotometric analysis. The immunomodulatory activity was examined in RAW 264.7 by quantification of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha) by RT-qPCR. Data showed that fermentation of Pushgay berries (i) enhances the content of quercetin aglycone, and (ii) increases their intracellular antioxidant activity, as indicated by the reduction in H2O2-induced cell death and the decrease in H2O2-induced HO-1 gene expression in HUVECs treated for 24 h with fermented berries solution (10 mu g/mL). Moreover, treatment with Pushgay berries for 72 h (10 mu g/mL) promotes cells growth in RAW 264.7, and only fermented Pushgay berries increase the expression of iNOS in the same cell line. Taken together, our results show that LAB fermentation of Pushgay berries enhances their antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties.
Marracino L, Punzo A, Severi P, Nganwouo Tchoutang R, Vargas-De-la-Cruz C, Fortini F, Vieceli Dalla Sega F, Silla A, Porru E, Simoni P, Rosta V, Trentini A, Ouambo Talla AW, Hrelia S, Cervellati C, Rizzo P, Caliceti C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/884205
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