We propose a model which describes the formation of a strong asperity on a fault. We consider a fault surface which differs slightly from a plane due to a jog-like topographic variation. The fault is placed in an elastic space and is subject to a uniform stress field. The orientation of the fault is such that the normal traction (which is compressive) is greater on the topographic variation, determining a higher static friction and hence an asperity. The value of friction on this asperity depends on the magnitude of shear stress. For times of seismological interest, the increase in shear stress, at rates typical of tectonic processes, does not produce a sensible increase in friction with respect to the adjacent fault segments. A considerable increase in friction and the formation of a strong asperity (or even a barrier) can occur due to repeated seismic-slip episodes on the fault. Slip results in an elastic medium deformation, causing an increase in normal traction on the asperity and hence in friction. This process is described with the aid of a tensile Somigliana dislocation. Regions with high friction undergo partial fracturing of the fault-face material, which can produce fault gouge. The tensile dislocation introduces a small non-double-couple component in the seismic moment of the seismic event, the magnitude of this component depending mainly on the relative size of the asperity.

Frictional changes induced by seismic slip on a non-planar fault

Dragoni M.;Piombo A.
1997

Abstract

We propose a model which describes the formation of a strong asperity on a fault. We consider a fault surface which differs slightly from a plane due to a jog-like topographic variation. The fault is placed in an elastic space and is subject to a uniform stress field. The orientation of the fault is such that the normal traction (which is compressive) is greater on the topographic variation, determining a higher static friction and hence an asperity. The value of friction on this asperity depends on the magnitude of shear stress. For times of seismological interest, the increase in shear stress, at rates typical of tectonic processes, does not produce a sensible increase in friction with respect to the adjacent fault segments. A considerable increase in friction and the formation of a strong asperity (or even a barrier) can occur due to repeated seismic-slip episodes on the fault. Slip results in an elastic medium deformation, causing an increase in normal traction on the asperity and hence in friction. This process is described with the aid of a tensile Somigliana dislocation. Regions with high friction undergo partial fracturing of the fault-face material, which can produce fault gouge. The tensile dislocation introduces a small non-double-couple component in the seismic moment of the seismic event, the magnitude of this component depending mainly on the relative size of the asperity.
GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL
Dragoni M.; Piombo A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/883063
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