Preserving artworks from the attacks of biodeteriogens is a primary duty of humanity. Nowadays, restorers use chemicals potentially dangerous for both artworks and human health. The purpose of this work was to find a green and safe formulation based on natural substances with fungicidal activity to restore ancient oil paintings, particularly “Il Silenzio” (by Jacopo Zucchi) preserved at the Uffizi Museum in Florence, Italy. The study was divided into two phases. First phase (in vitro study): three essential oils (EOs) and four hydrolates (Hys) were analysed by GC-mass spectrometry and in vitro tested against six ATCC strains of molds. An emulsion based on the more active natural compounds was tested on aged and unaged canvases samples to evaluate both their fungicidal activity and the impact on chemical-physical parameters. Finally, an in vivo toxicity test performed on the Galleria mellonella model assessed the safety for health. Second phase (in situ application): the emulsion was sprayed on the back of the painting and left to act for 24 h. Biodeteriogens present on the “Il Silenzio” painting were microbiologically identified before and after the treatment. The emulsion formulated with C. zeylanicum EO and C. aurantium var. amara Hy showed the best antifungal activity both in vitro and in situ without altering the chemical-physical characteristics of paintings. Furthermore, no in vivo toxicity was shown. For the first time, a green antimicrobial emulsion based on Hy and EO, safe for operators, was used to decontaminate an artwork colonised by fungi before the restoration practices.

Il Silenzio: The First Renaissance Oil Painting on Canvas from the Uffizi Museum Restored with a Safe, Green Antimicrobial Emulsion Based on Citrus aurantium var. amara Hydrolate and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Essential Oil

Barbanti L.;Bellardi M. G.;Mattarelli P.;
2022

Abstract

Preserving artworks from the attacks of biodeteriogens is a primary duty of humanity. Nowadays, restorers use chemicals potentially dangerous for both artworks and human health. The purpose of this work was to find a green and safe formulation based on natural substances with fungicidal activity to restore ancient oil paintings, particularly “Il Silenzio” (by Jacopo Zucchi) preserved at the Uffizi Museum in Florence, Italy. The study was divided into two phases. First phase (in vitro study): three essential oils (EOs) and four hydrolates (Hys) were analysed by GC-mass spectrometry and in vitro tested against six ATCC strains of molds. An emulsion based on the more active natural compounds was tested on aged and unaged canvases samples to evaluate both their fungicidal activity and the impact on chemical-physical parameters. Finally, an in vivo toxicity test performed on the Galleria mellonella model assessed the safety for health. Second phase (in situ application): the emulsion was sprayed on the back of the painting and left to act for 24 h. Biodeteriogens present on the “Il Silenzio” painting were microbiologically identified before and after the treatment. The emulsion formulated with C. zeylanicum EO and C. aurantium var. amara Hy showed the best antifungal activity both in vitro and in situ without altering the chemical-physical characteristics of paintings. Furthermore, no in vivo toxicity was shown. For the first time, a green antimicrobial emulsion based on Hy and EO, safe for operators, was used to decontaminate an artwork colonised by fungi before the restoration practices.
2022
Minotti D.; Vergari L.; Proto M.R.; Barbanti L.; Garzoli S.; Bugli F.; Sanguinetti M.; Sabatini L.; Peduzzi A.; Rosato R.; Bellardi M.G.; Mattarelli P.; De Luca D.; Di Vito M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/882771
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