Exfoliative cytology of human amniotic fluid (AF) has been extensively studied since 1940s, but no data exist in equine species. The AF compartment represents the environment in which the foetus grows and matures, and its composition changes, reflecting foetal well-being and development. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time the morphology of equine AF cells and amniotic membrane (AM) with light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AF was collected at parturition within 5 min after the appearance of the AM with a 60 mL syringe from 34 mares and samples of AM were collected from a subset of 7 mares with normal pregnancy hospitalized for attended parturition. For LM observation, a sample of cytocentrifuged fresh AF was stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa and AM sections were stained with H-E. For TEM observation, AF and AM were fixed, embedded in epoxy resins, then sectioned and stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate solutions. Nucleated and anucleated squamous cells with basophilic cytoplasm, intensely basophilic cornified cells, polymorphonuclear cells, and clusters of eosinophilic amorphous substance were observed. Cells presumably derived from tracheal epithelium and small round nucleated cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm presumably derived from amniotic or urinary epithelium were occasionally found. Lamellar body-like structures (LBs) were present in some epithelial cells. In AM, epithelial, basal and mesenchymal layers were clearly visible with both techniques as previously described. Epithelial cells had several cytoplasmic vacuolization and microvilli were present on apical surface. The connective tissue presented fibroblasts, mesenchymal and rare polymorphonuclear cells, surrounded by abundant extracellular matrix, with distribution of collagen fibres. This is the first report about equine amniotic compartment description by LM and TEM. As recently reported in human medicine, the AM could be a second potential source of pulmonary surfactant, given the finding of LBs inside the cells which could have the same function as in humans. Further studies in samples collected at different gestational ages could increase the knowledge of AF cells and their modification during pregnancy, as well as a better comprehension of the role of AM as a secondary source of pulmonary surfactant in the horse. The diagnostic evaluation of AF cellular composition in high-risk pregnancies may also be investigated.

Morphological study of equine amniotic compartment

Aliai Lanci
Primo
;
Laura Ingrà;Francesco Dondi;Federico Tomasello;Gabriella Teti;Jole Mariella;Mirella Falconi
Penultimo
;
Carolina Castagnetti
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Exfoliative cytology of human amniotic fluid (AF) has been extensively studied since 1940s, but no data exist in equine species. The AF compartment represents the environment in which the foetus grows and matures, and its composition changes, reflecting foetal well-being and development. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time the morphology of equine AF cells and amniotic membrane (AM) with light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AF was collected at parturition within 5 min after the appearance of the AM with a 60 mL syringe from 34 mares and samples of AM were collected from a subset of 7 mares with normal pregnancy hospitalized for attended parturition. For LM observation, a sample of cytocentrifuged fresh AF was stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa and AM sections were stained with H-E. For TEM observation, AF and AM were fixed, embedded in epoxy resins, then sectioned and stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate solutions. Nucleated and anucleated squamous cells with basophilic cytoplasm, intensely basophilic cornified cells, polymorphonuclear cells, and clusters of eosinophilic amorphous substance were observed. Cells presumably derived from tracheal epithelium and small round nucleated cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm presumably derived from amniotic or urinary epithelium were occasionally found. Lamellar body-like structures (LBs) were present in some epithelial cells. In AM, epithelial, basal and mesenchymal layers were clearly visible with both techniques as previously described. Epithelial cells had several cytoplasmic vacuolization and microvilli were present on apical surface. The connective tissue presented fibroblasts, mesenchymal and rare polymorphonuclear cells, surrounded by abundant extracellular matrix, with distribution of collagen fibres. This is the first report about equine amniotic compartment description by LM and TEM. As recently reported in human medicine, the AM could be a second potential source of pulmonary surfactant, given the finding of LBs inside the cells which could have the same function as in humans. Further studies in samples collected at different gestational ages could increase the knowledge of AF cells and their modification during pregnancy, as well as a better comprehension of the role of AM as a secondary source of pulmonary surfactant in the horse. The diagnostic evaluation of AF cellular composition in high-risk pregnancies may also be investigated.
Aliai Lanci, Laura Ingrà, Francesco Dondi, Federico Tomasello, Gabriella Teti, Jole Mariella, Mirella Falconi, Carolina Castagnetti
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/876569
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