Innovative green, eco-friendly, and biologically derived hydrogels for non-load bearing bone sites were conceived and produced. Natural polysaccharides (copolymers of sodium D-mannuronate and L-guluronate) with natural polypeptides (gelatin) and bioactive mineral fillers (calcium silicates CaSi and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate DCPD) were used to obtain eco-sustainable biomaterials for oral bone defects. Three PP-x:y formulations were prepared (PP-16:16, PP-33:22, and PP-31:31), where PP represents the polysaccharide/polypeptide matrix and x and y represent the weight % of CaSi and DCPD, respectively. Hydrogels were tested for their chemical-physical properties (calcium release and alkalizing activity in deionized water, porosity, solubility, water sorption, radiopacity), surface microchemistry and micromorphology, apatite nucleation in HBSS by ESEM-EDX, FT-Raman, and micro-Raman spectroscopies. The expression of vascular (CD31) and osteogenic (alkaline phosphatase ALP and osteocalcin OCN) markers by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human vascular walls, cultured in direct contact with hydrogels or with 10% of extracts was analysed. All mineral-filled hydrogels, in particular PP-31:31 and PP-33:22, released Calcium ions and alkalized the soaking water for three days. Calcium ion leakage was high at all the endpoints (3 h–28 d), while pH values were high at 3 h–3 d and then significantly decreased after seven days (p < 0.05). Porosity, solubility, and water sorption were higher for PP-31:31 (p < 0.05). The ESEM of fresh samples showed a compact structure with a few pores containing small mineral granules agglomerated in some areas (size 5–20 microns). PP-CTRL degraded after 1–2 weeks in HBSS. EDX spectroscopy revealed constitutional compounds and elements of the hydrogel (C, O, N, and S) and of the mineral powders (Ca, Si and P). After 28 days in HBSS, the mineral-filled hydrogels revealed a more porous structure, partially covered with a thicker mineral layer on PP-31:31. EDX analyses of the mineral coating showed Ca and P, and Raman revealed the presence of B-type carbonated apatite and calcite. MSCs cultured in contact with mineral-filled hydrogels revealed the expression of genes related to vascular (CD31) and osteogenic (mainly OCN) differentiation. Lower gene expression was found when cells were cultured with extracts added to the culture medium. The incorporation of biointeractive mineral powders in a green bio-derived algae-based matrix allowed to produce bioactive porous hydrogels able to release biologically relevant ions and create a suitable micro-environment for stem cells, resulting in interesting materials for bone regeneration and healing in oral bone defects.

Green Hydrogels Composed of Sodium Mannuronate/Guluronate, Gelatin and Biointeractive Calcium Silicates/Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate Designed for Oral Bone Defects Regeneration

Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna;Zamparini, Fausto;Valente, Sabrina;Pasquinelli, Gianandrea;Taddei, Paola;Prati, Carlo
2021

Abstract

Innovative green, eco-friendly, and biologically derived hydrogels for non-load bearing bone sites were conceived and produced. Natural polysaccharides (copolymers of sodium D-mannuronate and L-guluronate) with natural polypeptides (gelatin) and bioactive mineral fillers (calcium silicates CaSi and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate DCPD) were used to obtain eco-sustainable biomaterials for oral bone defects. Three PP-x:y formulations were prepared (PP-16:16, PP-33:22, and PP-31:31), where PP represents the polysaccharide/polypeptide matrix and x and y represent the weight % of CaSi and DCPD, respectively. Hydrogels were tested for their chemical-physical properties (calcium release and alkalizing activity in deionized water, porosity, solubility, water sorption, radiopacity), surface microchemistry and micromorphology, apatite nucleation in HBSS by ESEM-EDX, FT-Raman, and micro-Raman spectroscopies. The expression of vascular (CD31) and osteogenic (alkaline phosphatase ALP and osteocalcin OCN) markers by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human vascular walls, cultured in direct contact with hydrogels or with 10% of extracts was analysed. All mineral-filled hydrogels, in particular PP-31:31 and PP-33:22, released Calcium ions and alkalized the soaking water for three days. Calcium ion leakage was high at all the endpoints (3 h–28 d), while pH values were high at 3 h–3 d and then significantly decreased after seven days (p < 0.05). Porosity, solubility, and water sorption were higher for PP-31:31 (p < 0.05). The ESEM of fresh samples showed a compact structure with a few pores containing small mineral granules agglomerated in some areas (size 5–20 microns). PP-CTRL degraded after 1–2 weeks in HBSS. EDX spectroscopy revealed constitutional compounds and elements of the hydrogel (C, O, N, and S) and of the mineral powders (Ca, Si and P). After 28 days in HBSS, the mineral-filled hydrogels revealed a more porous structure, partially covered with a thicker mineral layer on PP-31:31. EDX analyses of the mineral coating showed Ca and P, and Raman revealed the presence of B-type carbonated apatite and calcite. MSCs cultured in contact with mineral-filled hydrogels revealed the expression of genes related to vascular (CD31) and osteogenic (mainly OCN) differentiation. Lower gene expression was found when cells were cultured with extracts added to the culture medium. The incorporation of biointeractive mineral powders in a green bio-derived algae-based matrix allowed to produce bioactive porous hydrogels able to release biologically relevant ions and create a suitable micro-environment for stem cells, resulting in interesting materials for bone regeneration and healing in oral bone defects.
Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Zamparini, Fausto; Valente, Sabrina; Parchi, Greta; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Taddei, Paola; Prati, Carlo
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
nanomaterials-11-03439 (1).pdf

accesso aperto

Tipo: Versione (PDF) editoriale
Licenza: Licenza per Accesso Aperto. Creative Commons Attribuzione (CCBY)
Dimensione 5.55 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
5.55 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
nanomaterials-11-03439-s001.zip

accesso aperto

Tipo: File Supplementare
Licenza: Licenza per Accesso Aperto. Altra tipologia di licenza compatibile con Open Access
Dimensione 736.3 kB
Formato Zip File
736.3 kB Zip File Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/860986
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 1
social impact