The phenotyping of the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) lies at the core of tailored treatments and it is one of the most debated topics in sleep medicine research. Recent sophisticated techniques have broadened the horizon for gaining insight into the variability of the endotypic traits in patients with OSA which account for the heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of the disease and consequently, in the outcome of treatment. However, the implementation of these concepts into clinical practice is still a major challenge for both researchers and clinicians in order to develop tailored therapies targeted to specific endotypic traits that contribute to OSA in each individual patient. This review summarizes available scientific evidence in order to point out the links between endotypic traits (pharyngeal airway collapsibility, upper airway neuromuscular compensation, loop gain and arousal threshold) and the most common non-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment options for OSA (mandibular advancement device, upper airway surgery, medication therapy, positional therapy) and to clarify to what extent endotypic traits could help to better predict the success of these therapies. A narrative guide is provided; current design limitations and future avenues of research are discussed, with clinical and research perspectives.

Non-continuous positive airway pressure treatment options in obstructive sleep apnoea: A pathophysiological perspective

Incerti Parenti S.;Plazzi G.;De Vito A.;Alessandri-Bonetti G.
2021

Abstract

The phenotyping of the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) lies at the core of tailored treatments and it is one of the most debated topics in sleep medicine research. Recent sophisticated techniques have broadened the horizon for gaining insight into the variability of the endotypic traits in patients with OSA which account for the heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of the disease and consequently, in the outcome of treatment. However, the implementation of these concepts into clinical practice is still a major challenge for both researchers and clinicians in order to develop tailored therapies targeted to specific endotypic traits that contribute to OSA in each individual patient. This review summarizes available scientific evidence in order to point out the links between endotypic traits (pharyngeal airway collapsibility, upper airway neuromuscular compensation, loop gain and arousal threshold) and the most common non-continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment options for OSA (mandibular advancement device, upper airway surgery, medication therapy, positional therapy) and to clarify to what extent endotypic traits could help to better predict the success of these therapies. A narrative guide is provided; current design limitations and future avenues of research are discussed, with clinical and research perspectives.
Bosi M.; Incerti Parenti S.; Sanna A.; Plazzi G.; De Vito A.; Alessandri-Bonetti G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/851114
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