Study objectives: The use of mouse models in sleep apnea study is limited by the belief that central (CSA) but not obstructive sleep apneas (OSA) occur in rodents. We aimed to develop a protocol to investigate the presence of OSAs in wild-type mice and, then, to apply it to a validated model of Down syndrome (Ts65Dn), a human pathology characterized by a high incidence of OSAs. Methods: In a pilot study, nine C57BL/6J wild-type mice were implanted with electrodes for electroencephalography (EEG), neck electromyography (nEMG), and diaphragmatic activity (DIA), and then placed in a whole-body-plethysmographic (WBP) chamber for 8 h during the rest (light) phase to simultaneously record sleep and breathing activity. CSA and OSA were discriminated on the basis of WBP and DIA signals recorded simultaneously. The same protocol was then applied to 12 Ts65Dn mice and 14 euploid controls. Results: OSAs represented about half of the apneic events recorded during rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS) in each experimental group, while the majority of CSAs were found during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Compared with euploid controls, Ts65Dn mice had a similar total occurrence rate of apneic events during sleep, but a significantly higher occurrence rate of OSAs during REMS, and a significantly lower occurrence rate of CSAs during NREMS. Conclusions: Mice physiologically exhibit both CSAs and OSAs. The latter appear almost exclusively during REMS, and are highly prevalent in Ts65Dn. Mice may, thus, represent a useful model to accelerate the understanding of the pathophysiology and genetics of sleep-disordered breathing and to help the development of new therapies.

Obstructive sleep apneas naturally occur in mice during REM sleep and are highly prevalent in a mouse model of Down syndrome

Bartolucci M. L.
Co-primo
Investigation
;
Berteotti C.
Co-primo
Investigation
;
Alvente S.
Secondo
Investigation
;
Bastianini S.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Guidi S.
Data Curation
;
Lo Martire V.
Investigation
;
Matteoli G.
Investigation
;
Silvani A.
Conceptualization
;
Stagni F.
Data Curation
;
Alessandri-Bonetti G.
Conceptualization
;
Bartesaghi R.
Conceptualization
;
Zoccoli G.
Conceptualization
2021

Abstract

Study objectives: The use of mouse models in sleep apnea study is limited by the belief that central (CSA) but not obstructive sleep apneas (OSA) occur in rodents. We aimed to develop a protocol to investigate the presence of OSAs in wild-type mice and, then, to apply it to a validated model of Down syndrome (Ts65Dn), a human pathology characterized by a high incidence of OSAs. Methods: In a pilot study, nine C57BL/6J wild-type mice were implanted with electrodes for electroencephalography (EEG), neck electromyography (nEMG), and diaphragmatic activity (DIA), and then placed in a whole-body-plethysmographic (WBP) chamber for 8 h during the rest (light) phase to simultaneously record sleep and breathing activity. CSA and OSA were discriminated on the basis of WBP and DIA signals recorded simultaneously. The same protocol was then applied to 12 Ts65Dn mice and 14 euploid controls. Results: OSAs represented about half of the apneic events recorded during rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS) in each experimental group, while the majority of CSAs were found during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Compared with euploid controls, Ts65Dn mice had a similar total occurrence rate of apneic events during sleep, but a significantly higher occurrence rate of OSAs during REMS, and a significantly lower occurrence rate of CSAs during NREMS. Conclusions: Mice physiologically exhibit both CSAs and OSAs. The latter appear almost exclusively during REMS, and are highly prevalent in Ts65Dn. Mice may, thus, represent a useful model to accelerate the understanding of the pathophysiology and genetics of sleep-disordered breathing and to help the development of new therapies.
Bartolucci M.L.; Berteotti C.; Alvente S.; Bastianini S.; Guidi S.; Lo Martire V.; Matteoli G.; Silvani A.; Stagni F.; Bosi M.; Alessandri-Bonetti G.; Bartesaghi R.; Zoccoli G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/849547
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