Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) consists of two isoforms (α and β) that were originally linked to glucose metabolism regulation. However, GSK-3 is also involved in several signaling pathways controlling many different key functions in healthy cells. GSK-3 is a unique kinase in that its isoforms are constitutively active, while they are inactivated mainly through phosphorylation at Ser residues by a variety of upstream kinases. In the early 1990s, GSK-3 emerged as a key player in cancer cell pathophysiology. Since active GSK-3 promotes destruction of multiple oncogenic proteins (e.g., β-catenin, c-Myc, Mcl-1) it was considered to be a tumor suppressor. Accordingly, GSK-3 is frequently inactivated in human cancer via aberrant regulation of upstream signaling pathways. More recently, however, it has emerged that GSK-3 isoforms display also oncogenic properties, as they up-regulate pathways critical for neoplastic cell proliferation, survival, and drug-resistance. The regulatory roles of GSK-3 isoforms in cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA repair, tumor metabolism, invasion, and metastasis reflect the therapeutic relevance of these kinases and provide the rationale for combining GSK-3 inhibitors with other targeted drugs. Here, we discuss the multiple and often conflicting roles of GSK-3 isoforms in acute leukemias. We also review the current status of GSK-3 inhibitor development for innovative leukemia therapy.

GSK-3: a multifaceted player in acute leukemias.

A. M. Martelli
Primo
Conceptualization
;
C. Evangelisti
Secondo
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
F. Paganelli
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2021

Abstract

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) consists of two isoforms (α and β) that were originally linked to glucose metabolism regulation. However, GSK-3 is also involved in several signaling pathways controlling many different key functions in healthy cells. GSK-3 is a unique kinase in that its isoforms are constitutively active, while they are inactivated mainly through phosphorylation at Ser residues by a variety of upstream kinases. In the early 1990s, GSK-3 emerged as a key player in cancer cell pathophysiology. Since active GSK-3 promotes destruction of multiple oncogenic proteins (e.g., β-catenin, c-Myc, Mcl-1) it was considered to be a tumor suppressor. Accordingly, GSK-3 is frequently inactivated in human cancer via aberrant regulation of upstream signaling pathways. More recently, however, it has emerged that GSK-3 isoforms display also oncogenic properties, as they up-regulate pathways critical for neoplastic cell proliferation, survival, and drug-resistance. The regulatory roles of GSK-3 isoforms in cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA repair, tumor metabolism, invasion, and metastasis reflect the therapeutic relevance of these kinases and provide the rationale for combining GSK-3 inhibitors with other targeted drugs. Here, we discuss the multiple and often conflicting roles of GSK-3 isoforms in acute leukemias. We also review the current status of GSK-3 inhibitor development for innovative leukemia therapy.
2021
A.M. Martelli, C. Evangelisti, F. Paganelli, F. Chiarini, J.A. McCubrey.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/827585
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