Radio synchrotron emission from the bridges of low-density gas connecting galaxy clusters and groups is a challenge for particle acceleration processes. In this work, we analyze the Coma radio bridge using new LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) observations at 144 MHz. LOFAR detects the bridge and its substructures with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. We found that the radio emission peaks on the NGC 4839 group. Toward the halo, in front of the NGC 4839 group, the radio brightness decreases and streams of radio emission connect the NGC 4839 group to the radio relic. Using X-ray observations, we found that thermal and non-thermal plasma are moderately correlated with a sublinear scaling. We use archival radio data at 326 MHz to constrain the spectral index in the bridge, and quantify the distribution of particles and magnetic field at different frequencies. We found that the spectrum is steeper than −1.4 ± 0.2, and that the emission is clumpier at 326 MHz than at 144 MHz. Using cosmological simulations and a simplified approach to compute particle acceleration, we derive under which conditions turbulent acceleration of mildly relativistic electrons generate the radio emission in the bridge. Assuming that the initial energy ratio of the seed electrons is 3 · 10−4 with respect to the thermal gas, we are able to reproduce the observed luminosity. Our results suggest that the seed electrons released by radio galaxies in the bridge and the turbulence generated by the motion of gas and galaxies are essential to producing the radio emission.

The coma cluster at low frequency array frequencies. I. Insights into particle acceleration mechanisms in the radio bridge

Bonafede A.;Vazza F.;Simionescu A.;Giovannini G.;Bonnassieux E.;Bruggen M.;Botteon A.;Brienza M.;Feretti L.;Gastaldello F.;di Gennaro G.;Stuardi C.;
2021

Abstract

Radio synchrotron emission from the bridges of low-density gas connecting galaxy clusters and groups is a challenge for particle acceleration processes. In this work, we analyze the Coma radio bridge using new LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) observations at 144 MHz. LOFAR detects the bridge and its substructures with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. We found that the radio emission peaks on the NGC 4839 group. Toward the halo, in front of the NGC 4839 group, the radio brightness decreases and streams of radio emission connect the NGC 4839 group to the radio relic. Using X-ray observations, we found that thermal and non-thermal plasma are moderately correlated with a sublinear scaling. We use archival radio data at 326 MHz to constrain the spectral index in the bridge, and quantify the distribution of particles and magnetic field at different frequencies. We found that the spectrum is steeper than −1.4 ± 0.2, and that the emission is clumpier at 326 MHz than at 144 MHz. Using cosmological simulations and a simplified approach to compute particle acceleration, we derive under which conditions turbulent acceleration of mildly relativistic electrons generate the radio emission in the bridge. Assuming that the initial energy ratio of the seed electrons is 3 · 10−4 with respect to the thermal gas, we are able to reproduce the observed luminosity. Our results suggest that the seed electrons released by radio galaxies in the bridge and the turbulence generated by the motion of gas and galaxies are essential to producing the radio emission.
Bonafede A.; Brunetti G.; Vazza F.; Simionescu A.; Giovannini G.; Bonnassieux E.; Shimwell T.W.; Bruggen M.; van Weeren R.J.; Botteon A.; Brienza M.; Cassano R.; Drabent A.; Feretti L.; de Gasperin F.; Gastaldello F.; di Gennaro G.; Rossetti M.; Rottgering H.J.A.; Stuardi C.; Venturi T.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/819366
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