An adequate protection from oxidative and inflammatory reactions, together with the promotion of oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) differentiation, is needed to recover from myelin damage in demyelinating diseases. Mitochondria are targets of inflammatory and oxidative insults and are essential in oligodendrocyte differentiation. It is known that nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor/antioxidant responsive element (NRF2/ARE) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/PPAR-γ response element (PPAR-γ/PPRE) pathways control inflammation and overcome mitochondrial impairment. In this study, we analyzed the effects of activators of these pathways on mitochondrial features, protection from inflammatory/mitochondrial insults and cell differentiation in OP cultures, to depict the specificities and similarities of their actions. We used dimethyl-fumarate (DMF) and pioglitazone (pio) as agents activating NRF2 and PPAR-γ, respectively, and two synthetic hybrids acting differently on the NRF2/ARE pathway. Only DMF and compound 1 caused early effects on the mitochondria. Both DMF and pio induced mitochondrial biogenesis but different antioxidant repertoires. Moreover, pio induced OP differentiation more efficiently than DMF. Finally, DMF, pio and compound 1 protected from tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) insult, with pio showing faster kinetics of action and compound 1 a higher activity than DMF. In conclusion, NRF2 and PPAR-γ by inducing partially overlapping pathways accomplish complementary functions aimed at the preservation of mitochondrial function, the defense against oxidative stress and the promotion of OP differentiation.

NRF2 and PPAR-γ Pathways in Oligodendrocyte Progenitors: Focus on Ros Protection, Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Promotion of Cell Differentiation

Rosini M.;Basagni F.;
2020

Abstract

An adequate protection from oxidative and inflammatory reactions, together with the promotion of oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) differentiation, is needed to recover from myelin damage in demyelinating diseases. Mitochondria are targets of inflammatory and oxidative insults and are essential in oligodendrocyte differentiation. It is known that nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor/antioxidant responsive element (NRF2/ARE) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/PPAR-γ response element (PPAR-γ/PPRE) pathways control inflammation and overcome mitochondrial impairment. In this study, we analyzed the effects of activators of these pathways on mitochondrial features, protection from inflammatory/mitochondrial insults and cell differentiation in OP cultures, to depict the specificities and similarities of their actions. We used dimethyl-fumarate (DMF) and pioglitazone (pio) as agents activating NRF2 and PPAR-γ, respectively, and two synthetic hybrids acting differently on the NRF2/ARE pathway. Only DMF and compound 1 caused early effects on the mitochondria. Both DMF and pio induced mitochondrial biogenesis but different antioxidant repertoires. Moreover, pio induced OP differentiation more efficiently than DMF. Finally, DMF, pio and compound 1 protected from tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) insult, with pio showing faster kinetics of action and compound 1 a higher activity than DMF. In conclusion, NRF2 and PPAR-γ by inducing partially overlapping pathways accomplish complementary functions aimed at the preservation of mitochondrial function, the defense against oxidative stress and the promotion of OP differentiation.
De Nuccio C.; Bernardo A.; Troiano C.; Brignone M.S.; Falchi M.; Greco A.; Rosini M.; Basagni F.; Lanni C.; Serafini M.M.; Minghetti L.; Visentin S.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/802948
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