Orthostatic hypotension is a medical condition potentially debilitating and associated with a negative prognosis. It is paramount for cardiologists to recognize it, mostly for the following reasons: it is a predictive factor for cardiovascular events, it may cause syncope, and it is frequently associated with supine hypertension. Orthostatic hypotension may be secondary to neurogenic etiology (baroreflex dysfunction) or non-neurogenic etiology (dehydration or medication-related). Although laboratory tests exploring the autonomic nervous system are required for a detailed etiologic diagnosis, medical history and a sphygmomanometer can be sufficient for diagnosis. Therapeutic management of orthostatic hypotension is challenging, mostly because of the association in half of the cases with supine hypertension. Treatment should be a compromise between anti-hypotensive and anti-hypertensive measures with one overcoming the other based on the hour of the day. Non-pharmacological therapies, regarded as avoidance of precipitating factors and physical and dietary interventions, as well as chronic treatment revision, have a pivotal role.In this review we will discuss, in a pragmatic manner, about epidemiology, etiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension. Moreover, we will discuss about prognosis and management of orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension.

Ipotensione ortostatica e ipertensione supina: guida pratica a diagnosi e terapia=Orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension: a practical guide to diagnosis and management

Strocchi E;Cortelli P;Borghi C.
2021

Abstract

Orthostatic hypotension is a medical condition potentially debilitating and associated with a negative prognosis. It is paramount for cardiologists to recognize it, mostly for the following reasons: it is a predictive factor for cardiovascular events, it may cause syncope, and it is frequently associated with supine hypertension. Orthostatic hypotension may be secondary to neurogenic etiology (baroreflex dysfunction) or non-neurogenic etiology (dehydration or medication-related). Although laboratory tests exploring the autonomic nervous system are required for a detailed etiologic diagnosis, medical history and a sphygmomanometer can be sufficient for diagnosis. Therapeutic management of orthostatic hypotension is challenging, mostly because of the association in half of the cases with supine hypertension. Treatment should be a compromise between anti-hypotensive and anti-hypertensive measures with one overcoming the other based on the hour of the day. Non-pharmacological therapies, regarded as avoidance of precipitating factors and physical and dietary interventions, as well as chronic treatment revision, have a pivotal role.In this review we will discuss, in a pragmatic manner, about epidemiology, etiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension. Moreover, we will discuss about prognosis and management of orthostatic hypotension and supine hypertension.
GIORNALE ITALIANO DI CARDIOLOGIA
Pensato U, Strocchi E, Cortelli P, Borghi C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/800954
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