Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are emerging as powerful tools for EEG decoding: these techniques, by automatically learning relevant features for class discrimination, improve EEG decoding performances without relying on handcrafted features. Nevertheless, the learned features are difficult to interpret and most of the existing CNNs introduce many trainable parameters. Here, we propose a lightweight and interpretable shallow CNN (Sinc-ShallowNet), by stacking a temporal sinc-convolutional layer (designed to learn band-pass filters, each having only the two cut-off frequencies as trainable parameters), a spatial depthwise convolutional layer (reducing channel connectivity and learning spatial filters tied to each band-pass filter), and a fully-connected layer finalizing the classification. This convolutional module limits the number of trainable parameters and allows direct interpretation of the learned spectral–spatial​ features via simple kernel visualizations. Furthermore, we designed a post-hoc gradient-based technique to enhance interpretation by identifying the more relevant and more class-specific features. Sinc-ShallowNet was evaluated on benchmark motor-execution and motor-imagery datasets and against different design choices and training strategies. Results show that (i) Sinc-ShallowNet outperformed a traditional machine learning algorithm and other CNNs for EEG decoding; (ii) The learned spectral–spatial features matched well-known EEG motor-related activity; (iii) The proposed architecture performed better with a larger number of temporal kernels still maintaining a good compromise between accuracy and parsimony, and with a trialwise rather than a cropped training strategy. In perspective, the proposed approach, with its interpretative capacity, can be exploited to investigate cognitive/motor aspects whose EEG correlates are yet scarcely known, potentially characterizing their relevant features.

Borra D., Fantozzi S., Magosso E. (2020). Interpretable and lightweight convolutional neural network for EEG decoding: Application to movement execution and imagination. NEURAL NETWORKS, 129, 55-74 [10.1016/j.neunet.2020.05.032].

Interpretable and lightweight convolutional neural network for EEG decoding: Application to movement execution and imagination

Borra D.
Primo
;
Fantozzi S.
Secondo
;
Magosso E.
Ultimo
2020

Abstract

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are emerging as powerful tools for EEG decoding: these techniques, by automatically learning relevant features for class discrimination, improve EEG decoding performances without relying on handcrafted features. Nevertheless, the learned features are difficult to interpret and most of the existing CNNs introduce many trainable parameters. Here, we propose a lightweight and interpretable shallow CNN (Sinc-ShallowNet), by stacking a temporal sinc-convolutional layer (designed to learn band-pass filters, each having only the two cut-off frequencies as trainable parameters), a spatial depthwise convolutional layer (reducing channel connectivity and learning spatial filters tied to each band-pass filter), and a fully-connected layer finalizing the classification. This convolutional module limits the number of trainable parameters and allows direct interpretation of the learned spectral–spatial​ features via simple kernel visualizations. Furthermore, we designed a post-hoc gradient-based technique to enhance interpretation by identifying the more relevant and more class-specific features. Sinc-ShallowNet was evaluated on benchmark motor-execution and motor-imagery datasets and against different design choices and training strategies. Results show that (i) Sinc-ShallowNet outperformed a traditional machine learning algorithm and other CNNs for EEG decoding; (ii) The learned spectral–spatial features matched well-known EEG motor-related activity; (iii) The proposed architecture performed better with a larger number of temporal kernels still maintaining a good compromise between accuracy and parsimony, and with a trialwise rather than a cropped training strategy. In perspective, the proposed approach, with its interpretative capacity, can be exploited to investigate cognitive/motor aspects whose EEG correlates are yet scarcely known, potentially characterizing their relevant features.
2020
Borra D., Fantozzi S., Magosso E. (2020). Interpretable and lightweight convolutional neural network for EEG decoding: Application to movement execution and imagination. NEURAL NETWORKS, 129, 55-74 [10.1016/j.neunet.2020.05.032].
Borra D.; Fantozzi S.; Magosso E.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/786928
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