Additive manufacturing (AM) has gained great importance in the recent development to produce metallic structural elements for civil engineering applications. However, research effort has been focused mainly on powder-based processes, while there is still limited knowledge concerning the structural response of wire-and-arc additive manufactured (WAAM) metallic elements, and very few experimental data concerning their mechanical properties. This paper presents the first results of a wide experimental campaign aimed at assessing the mechanical properties of WAAM plates produced using a commercial ER308LSi stainless steel welding wire. The aim is to evaluate the effect of the orientation in the tensile behavior of planar elements considering specimens extracted along three different directions with respect to the deposition layer: transversal direction (T), longitudinal direction (L), and diagonal direction (D). Compositional, microstructural, and fractographic analyses were carried out to relate the specific microstructural features induced by WAAM to the mechanical properties. The results show that the chemical composition of the plates meets the requirements of UNS-S-30403 for an AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel. The as-built samples were substantially defect-free and characterized by a very fine microstructure of γ and δ phases The fineness of the microstructure and the negligible defect content led to values of tensile strength and elongation to failure in line with the traditionally manufactured stainless steel elements. Anisotropy in the tensile properties between T, L, and D specimens was observed, and the highest elastic and plastic properties were measured in D specimens. This result is related to the crystallographic and mechanical fibering induced by the additive process, that led also, in case of D samples, to the highest density of cell boundaries, obstacles to the dislocation slip, located at 45° with respect to the loading direction, where plastic deformation preferentially occurs.

Tensile properties and microstructural features of 304L austenitic stainless steel produced by wire-and-arc additive manufacturing

Laghi V.;Palermo M.;Tonelli L.;Gasparini G.;Ceschini L.;Trombetti T.
2020

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) has gained great importance in the recent development to produce metallic structural elements for civil engineering applications. However, research effort has been focused mainly on powder-based processes, while there is still limited knowledge concerning the structural response of wire-and-arc additive manufactured (WAAM) metallic elements, and very few experimental data concerning their mechanical properties. This paper presents the first results of a wide experimental campaign aimed at assessing the mechanical properties of WAAM plates produced using a commercial ER308LSi stainless steel welding wire. The aim is to evaluate the effect of the orientation in the tensile behavior of planar elements considering specimens extracted along three different directions with respect to the deposition layer: transversal direction (T), longitudinal direction (L), and diagonal direction (D). Compositional, microstructural, and fractographic analyses were carried out to relate the specific microstructural features induced by WAAM to the mechanical properties. The results show that the chemical composition of the plates meets the requirements of UNS-S-30403 for an AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel. The as-built samples were substantially defect-free and characterized by a very fine microstructure of γ and δ phases The fineness of the microstructure and the negligible defect content led to values of tensile strength and elongation to failure in line with the traditionally manufactured stainless steel elements. Anisotropy in the tensile properties between T, L, and D specimens was observed, and the highest elastic and plastic properties were measured in D specimens. This result is related to the crystallographic and mechanical fibering induced by the additive process, that led also, in case of D samples, to the highest density of cell boundaries, obstacles to the dislocation slip, located at 45° with respect to the loading direction, where plastic deformation preferentially occurs.
Laghi V.; Palermo M.; Tonelli L.; Gasparini G.; Ceschini L.; Trombetti T.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/723719
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