Aim: A gluten-free diet (GFD) can expose children to excessive calories and fat intake. The study is intended to verify whether and how food intake, laboratory parameters, and growth are modified by a year of GFD. Methods: In 79 CD (coeliac disease) children (mean age 7.9 ± 3.8 years, 52 females, 27 males) diagnosed over 24 months, 24-h food diaries, food-frequency patterns, anthropometric and laboratory parameters (mainly blood sugar, insulin, lipid profile, and homocysteine) were prospectively collected before and during the first year of GFD. Nutrient intakes were compared over time and with recommendations. They were also used as regressors to explain the levels and changes of metabolic and growth variables. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Average macronutrient intake did not change during the year. Caloric intake remained below 90% (p ≤ 0.0001) and protein intake above 200% (p ≤ 0.0001) of recommendations. Lipid intake was stable at 34% of overall energy intake. Unsaturated fats increased (less omega-6 and more omega-3 with a ratio improvement from 13.3 ± 5.5 to 8.8 ± 3.1) and so did fibers, while folate decreased. The children who experienced a containment in their caloric intake during the year, presented a slower catch-up growth. Some differences were found across gender and age groups. In particular, adolescents consumed less calories, and females more omega-3. Fiber and simple sugar intakes emerged as implicated in lipid profile shift: fibers negatively with triglycerides (TG) (p = 0.033), simple sugars negatively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.056) and positively with TG (p = 0.004). Waist-to-height ratio was positively associated with homocysteine (p = 0.018) and Homeostasis Model Assessment (p = 0.001), negatively with fibers (p = 0.004). Conclusion: In the short run, GFD is nutritionally very similar to any diet with gluten, with some improvements in unsaturated fats and fiber intake. Along with simple sugars containment, this may offer CD patients the opportunity for a fresh start. Caloric intakes may shift and should be monitored, especially in adolescents.

Gluten deprivation: What nutritional changes are found during the first year in newly diagnosed coeliac children?

Maria Luisa, Forchielli
;
Flavio Labriola;Giulia Bolasco;Alessandro Rocca;Arianna Leone;Chiara Miserocchi;Laura Andreozzi;Francesca, Levi della Vida;Mario Lima;Andrea Pession
2020

Abstract

Aim: A gluten-free diet (GFD) can expose children to excessive calories and fat intake. The study is intended to verify whether and how food intake, laboratory parameters, and growth are modified by a year of GFD. Methods: In 79 CD (coeliac disease) children (mean age 7.9 ± 3.8 years, 52 females, 27 males) diagnosed over 24 months, 24-h food diaries, food-frequency patterns, anthropometric and laboratory parameters (mainly blood sugar, insulin, lipid profile, and homocysteine) were prospectively collected before and during the first year of GFD. Nutrient intakes were compared over time and with recommendations. They were also used as regressors to explain the levels and changes of metabolic and growth variables. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Average macronutrient intake did not change during the year. Caloric intake remained below 90% (p ≤ 0.0001) and protein intake above 200% (p ≤ 0.0001) of recommendations. Lipid intake was stable at 34% of overall energy intake. Unsaturated fats increased (less omega-6 and more omega-3 with a ratio improvement from 13.3 ± 5.5 to 8.8 ± 3.1) and so did fibers, while folate decreased. The children who experienced a containment in their caloric intake during the year, presented a slower catch-up growth. Some differences were found across gender and age groups. In particular, adolescents consumed less calories, and females more omega-3. Fiber and simple sugar intakes emerged as implicated in lipid profile shift: fibers negatively with triglycerides (TG) (p = 0.033), simple sugars negatively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (p = 0.056) and positively with TG (p = 0.004). Waist-to-height ratio was positively associated with homocysteine (p = 0.018) and Homeostasis Model Assessment (p = 0.001), negatively with fibers (p = 0.004). Conclusion: In the short run, GFD is nutritionally very similar to any diet with gluten, with some improvements in unsaturated fats and fiber intake. Along with simple sugars containment, this may offer CD patients the opportunity for a fresh start. Caloric intakes may shift and should be monitored, especially in adolescents.
Maria Luisa, Forchielli; Lucia Diani, Flavio Labriola, Giulia Bolasco, Alessandro Rocca, Nunzio Cosimo Salfi, Arianna Leone, Chiara Miserocchi, Laura Andreozzi; Francesca, Levi della Vida; Achille Cesare Pessina, Mario Lima, Andrea Pession
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/712449
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