Urea hydrolysis in soil is accelerated 1015–fold by the nickel-dependent enzyme urease to yield a source of N that can be assimilated by plants. This reaction determines an overall soil pH increase and signi cant ammonia volatilization, decreasing the ef ciency of urea-based fertilization. A control of urease activity is thus required for agronomic purposes. Maleic-Itaconic Polymers (MIPs) have been claimed to decrease the N loss as ammonia volatilization by inhibiting urease activity. To investigate this matter, we per- formed an in vitro study using urease from jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, JBU) at pH 7.5 and pH 5.0. Urease is not affected by MIPs at pH 7.5, but the enzyme is completely inactivated in 20 min at pH 5.0 using MIPs in the 0.4 to 2.4 mmol L–1 range. This inactivation is comparable to that attained using similar concentrations of N-(n-butyl)-thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). In vivo assays conducted using Sporosarcina pasteurii as a model for a wide- spread soil bacterium and urea, in the presence of either MIPs or NBPT at pH 7.5, revealed that NBPT signi cantly inhibits both cellular growth and urease activity, while MIPs have no effect. To elucidate the mechanism of extracel- lular urease inactivation by MIPs in vitro, their Ni(II) sequestration capability was investigated. The MIPs (50 mmol L–1) completely extract the essential Ni(II) ions from the active site of urease at pH 5.0, in 3 h. This phenomenon is related to the capability of MIPs to shift the Ni(II)-urease dissociation equilib- rium through binding and chelation of the Ni(II) ions off the active site.

An Evaluation of Maleic-Itaconic Copolymers as Urease Inhibitors

Mazzei, Luca;Broll, Valquiria;Ciurli, Stefano
2018

Abstract

Urea hydrolysis in soil is accelerated 1015–fold by the nickel-dependent enzyme urease to yield a source of N that can be assimilated by plants. This reaction determines an overall soil pH increase and signi cant ammonia volatilization, decreasing the ef ciency of urea-based fertilization. A control of urease activity is thus required for agronomic purposes. Maleic-Itaconic Polymers (MIPs) have been claimed to decrease the N loss as ammonia volatilization by inhibiting urease activity. To investigate this matter, we per- formed an in vitro study using urease from jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, JBU) at pH 7.5 and pH 5.0. Urease is not affected by MIPs at pH 7.5, but the enzyme is completely inactivated in 20 min at pH 5.0 using MIPs in the 0.4 to 2.4 mmol L–1 range. This inactivation is comparable to that attained using similar concentrations of N-(n-butyl)-thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT). In vivo assays conducted using Sporosarcina pasteurii as a model for a wide- spread soil bacterium and urea, in the presence of either MIPs or NBPT at pH 7.5, revealed that NBPT signi cantly inhibits both cellular growth and urease activity, while MIPs have no effect. To elucidate the mechanism of extracel- lular urease inactivation by MIPs in vitro, their Ni(II) sequestration capability was investigated. The MIPs (50 mmol L–1) completely extract the essential Ni(II) ions from the active site of urease at pH 5.0, in 3 h. This phenomenon is related to the capability of MIPs to shift the Ni(II)-urease dissociation equilib- rium through binding and chelation of the Ni(II) ions off the active site.
Mazzei, Luca; Broll, Valquiria; Ciurli, Stefano
File in questo prodotto:
Eventuali allegati, non sono esposti

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/642096
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 8
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 8
social impact