Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare two decompression procedures commonly adopted by technical divers: the ZH-L16 algorithm modifled by 30/85 gradient factors (compartmental decompression model, CDM) versus the 'ratio decompression strategy' (RDS). The comparison was based on an analysis of changes in diver circulating inflammatory proflles caused by decompression from a single dive.Methods: Fifty-one technical divers performed a single trimix dive to 50 metres' sea water (msw) for 25 minutes followed by enriched air (EAN50) and oxygen decompression. Twenty-three divers decompressed according to a CDM schedule and 28 divers decompressed according to a RDS schedule. Peripheral blood for detection of inflammatory markers was collected before and 90 min after diving. Venous gas emboli were measured 30 min after diving using 2D echocardiography. Matched groups of 23 recreational divers (dive to 30 msw; 25 min) and 25 swimmers were also enrolled as control groups to assess the effects of decompression from a standard air dive or of exercise alone on the inflammatory proflle.Results: Echocardiography at the single 30 min observation post dive showed no significant differences between the two decompression procedures. Divers adopting the RDS showed a worsening of post-dive inflammatory proflle compared to the CDM group, with significant increases in circulating chemokines CCL2 (P = 0.001) and CCL5 (P = 0.006) levels. There was no increase in chemokines following the CDM decompression. The air scuba group also showed a statistically significant increase in CCL2 (P < 0.001) and CCL5 (P = 0.003) levels post dive. No cases of decompression sickness occurred.Conclusion: The ratio deco strategy did not confer any benefit in terms of bubbles but showed the disadvantage of increased decompression-associated secretion of inflammatory chemokines involved in the development of vascular damage.

A comparative evaluation of two decompression procedures for technical diving using infl ammatory responses: compartmental versus ratio deco / Spisni, E; Marabotti, C; De Fazio, L; Valerii, MC; Cavazza, E; Brambilla, S; Hoxha, K; L'Abbate, A; Longobardi, P. - In: DIVING AND HYPERBARIC MEDICINE. - ISSN 1833-3516. - ELETTRONICO. - 47:1(2017), pp. 9-16.

A comparative evaluation of two decompression procedures for technical diving using infl ammatory responses: compartmental versus ratio deco

Spisni, E
;
De Fazio, L;Valerii, MC;Cavazza, E;
2017

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare two decompression procedures commonly adopted by technical divers: the ZH-L16 algorithm modifled by 30/85 gradient factors (compartmental decompression model, CDM) versus the 'ratio decompression strategy' (RDS). The comparison was based on an analysis of changes in diver circulating inflammatory proflles caused by decompression from a single dive.Methods: Fifty-one technical divers performed a single trimix dive to 50 metres' sea water (msw) for 25 minutes followed by enriched air (EAN50) and oxygen decompression. Twenty-three divers decompressed according to a CDM schedule and 28 divers decompressed according to a RDS schedule. Peripheral blood for detection of inflammatory markers was collected before and 90 min after diving. Venous gas emboli were measured 30 min after diving using 2D echocardiography. Matched groups of 23 recreational divers (dive to 30 msw; 25 min) and 25 swimmers were also enrolled as control groups to assess the effects of decompression from a standard air dive or of exercise alone on the inflammatory proflle.Results: Echocardiography at the single 30 min observation post dive showed no significant differences between the two decompression procedures. Divers adopting the RDS showed a worsening of post-dive inflammatory proflle compared to the CDM group, with significant increases in circulating chemokines CCL2 (P = 0.001) and CCL5 (P = 0.006) levels. There was no increase in chemokines following the CDM decompression. The air scuba group also showed a statistically significant increase in CCL2 (P < 0.001) and CCL5 (P = 0.003) levels post dive. No cases of decompression sickness occurred.Conclusion: The ratio deco strategy did not confer any benefit in terms of bubbles but showed the disadvantage of increased decompression-associated secretion of inflammatory chemokines involved in the development of vascular damage.
2017
A comparative evaluation of two decompression procedures for technical diving using infl ammatory responses: compartmental versus ratio deco / Spisni, E; Marabotti, C; De Fazio, L; Valerii, MC; Cavazza, E; Brambilla, S; Hoxha, K; L'Abbate, A; Longobardi, P. - In: DIVING AND HYPERBARIC MEDICINE. - ISSN 1833-3516. - ELETTRONICO. - 47:1(2017), pp. 9-16.
Spisni, E; Marabotti, C; De Fazio, L; Valerii, MC; Cavazza, E; Brambilla, S; Hoxha, K; L'Abbate, A; Longobardi, P
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/625637
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