While energy harvesting is generally seen to be the key to power cyber-physical systems in a low-cost, long-term, efficient manner, it has generally required large energy storage devices to mitigate the effects of the source's variability. The emerging class of transiently powered systems embrace this variability by performing computation in proportion to the energy harvested, thereby minimizing the obtrusive and expensive storage element. By using an efficient Energy Management Unit (EMU), small bursts of energy can be buffered in an optimally sized capacitor and used to supply generic loads, even when the average harvested power is only a fraction of that required for sustained system operation. Dynamic Energy Burst Scaling (DEBS) can be used by the load to dynamically configure the EMU to supply small bursts of energy at its optimal power point, independent from the harvester's operating point. Parameters like the maximum burst size, the solar panel's area, as well as the use of energy-efficient Non-Volatile Memory Hierarchy (NVMH) can have a significant impact on the transient system's characteristics such as the wake-up time and the amount of work that can be done per unit of energy. Experimental data from a solar-powered, long-term autonomous image acquisition application show that, regardless of its configuration, the EMU can supply energy bursts to a 43.4mW load with efficiencies of up to 79.7% and can work with input power levels as low as 140μW. When the EMU is configured to use DEBS and NVMH, the total energy cost of acquiring, processing and storing an image can be reduced by 77.8%, at the price of increasing the energy buffer size by 65%.

Efficient, long-term logging of rich data sensors using transient sensor nodes

Gomez, Andres;Benini, Luca;
2018

Abstract

While energy harvesting is generally seen to be the key to power cyber-physical systems in a low-cost, long-term, efficient manner, it has generally required large energy storage devices to mitigate the effects of the source's variability. The emerging class of transiently powered systems embrace this variability by performing computation in proportion to the energy harvested, thereby minimizing the obtrusive and expensive storage element. By using an efficient Energy Management Unit (EMU), small bursts of energy can be buffered in an optimally sized capacitor and used to supply generic loads, even when the average harvested power is only a fraction of that required for sustained system operation. Dynamic Energy Burst Scaling (DEBS) can be used by the load to dynamically configure the EMU to supply small bursts of energy at its optimal power point, independent from the harvester's operating point. Parameters like the maximum burst size, the solar panel's area, as well as the use of energy-efficient Non-Volatile Memory Hierarchy (NVMH) can have a significant impact on the transient system's characteristics such as the wake-up time and the amount of work that can be done per unit of energy. Experimental data from a solar-powered, long-term autonomous image acquisition application show that, regardless of its configuration, the EMU can supply energy bursts to a 43.4mW load with efficiencies of up to 79.7% and can work with input power levels as low as 140μW. When the EMU is configured to use DEBS and NVMH, the total energy cost of acquiring, processing and storing an image can be reduced by 77.8%, at the price of increasing the energy buffer size by 65%.
Gomez, Andres; Sigrist, Lukas; Schalch, Thomas; Benini, Luca; Thiele, Lothar
File in questo prodotto:
Eventuali allegati, non sono esposti

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/624056
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 9
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 8
social impact