Phenol oxidases (POs) are a group of soil extracellular oxidoreductase enzymes, which are involved in oxidative processes related to nutrient cycling. This class of enzymes has multiple functions at both the organism and ecosystem level and can trigger either positive or negative feedback loops between soil organisms and soil organic matter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate: (i) whether PO activities have a trend different from those of microbial biomass and activity; and (ii) whether PO activities are enhanced or reduced by fertilizer application. Soil samples were taken from plots in a 14-year-old experimental walnut orchard, subjected, since planting, to three fertilizer treatments: organic (compost) or mineral (urea) fertilization at the same rate of nitrogen application (100 kg N ha− 1), or left unfertilized. Soil samples were divided according to sampling depth (0–20 cm and 20–40 cm). Results showed that the application of compost significantly increased C and N pools. qCO2 and DHD/Cext data indicated that the biota at 20–40 cm soil depth was more stressed or mainly composed of microorganisms with low substrate utilization efficiency. Phenol oxidase, tyrosinase, and catechol oxidase activities were significantly promoted in the surface layer by compost addition. In contrast, laccase activity showed a large increase in the deeper soil layer when supplied with mineral N, whereas compost addition led to increased activity in the surface layer. These findings suggest that soil phenol oxidases play a part in the determination of soil functionality, but they need to be investigated in greater depth in order to understand the mechanisms regulating their activities.

Changes in soil phenol oxidase activities due to long-term application of compost and mineral N in a walnut orchard

MAZZON, MARTINA;Luciano Cavani
;
Alja Margon;Giovambattista Sorrenti;Claudio Ciavatta;Claudio Marzadori
2018

Abstract

Phenol oxidases (POs) are a group of soil extracellular oxidoreductase enzymes, which are involved in oxidative processes related to nutrient cycling. This class of enzymes has multiple functions at both the organism and ecosystem level and can trigger either positive or negative feedback loops between soil organisms and soil organic matter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate: (i) whether PO activities have a trend different from those of microbial biomass and activity; and (ii) whether PO activities are enhanced or reduced by fertilizer application. Soil samples were taken from plots in a 14-year-old experimental walnut orchard, subjected, since planting, to three fertilizer treatments: organic (compost) or mineral (urea) fertilization at the same rate of nitrogen application (100 kg N ha− 1), or left unfertilized. Soil samples were divided according to sampling depth (0–20 cm and 20–40 cm). Results showed that the application of compost significantly increased C and N pools. qCO2 and DHD/Cext data indicated that the biota at 20–40 cm soil depth was more stressed or mainly composed of microorganisms with low substrate utilization efficiency. Phenol oxidase, tyrosinase, and catechol oxidase activities were significantly promoted in the surface layer by compost addition. In contrast, laccase activity showed a large increase in the deeper soil layer when supplied with mineral N, whereas compost addition led to increased activity in the surface layer. These findings suggest that soil phenol oxidases play a part in the determination of soil functionality, but they need to be investigated in greater depth in order to understand the mechanisms regulating their activities.
Martina, Mazzon; Luciano, Cavani; Alja, Margon; Giovambattista, Sorrenti; Claudio, Ciavatta; Claudio, Marzadori
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/613973
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