Nowadays, environmental concerns are posing a great challenge to DI Diesel engines. Increasingly tightening emission limits require a higher attention on combustion efficiency. A high efficiency Diesel engine can be developed only mastering all the parameters that can affect the combustion and, therefore, NOx and soot emissions. In this scenario, computational fluid-dynamics can prove its power guaranteeing a deeper understanding of mixture formation process and combustion. In this work, the development of an engine in order to fulfill Tier 4i emission standard will be presented, the Tier 4i compliance must be reached without an excessive increase of the final cost of the engine. Originally, the engine was a two-valve engine supplied with a DPF, since no SCR aftertreatment is supplied, NOx emission target are achieved through external exhaust gas recirculation and retarding the start of injection. Through combustion process simulations, performed with the CFD code KIVA3D, varying different geometric parameters and the intensity of the swirl ratio, the interaction between the swirl flow field, generated by the intake duct, the reverse squish motion, and motions aerodynamically generated by spray has been investigated leading to a better interaction between the flow field, the fuel spray and the piston bowl geometry and to the definition of a new engine lay-out. The study shows how, given the need of retarded injection for limiting NOx emission, the decrease of swirl ratio, when combined with a proper piston bowl design, allows a significant decrease of soot emissions and the achievement of Tier 4i emission standard. The study has been validated comparing the intake phase simulations, performed with the CFD code Fire v2009 v3, followed by the combustion process performed with the KIVA3D code, with the experimental result obtained from the engine assembled following the developed design. © 2013 The Authors.

Development of a Emission Compliant, High Efficiency, Two-valve DI Diesel Engine for Off-road Application

BIANCHI, GIAN MARCO;CAZZOLI, GIULIO;FORTE, CLAUDIO;COSTA, MARCO;
2014

Abstract

Nowadays, environmental concerns are posing a great challenge to DI Diesel engines. Increasingly tightening emission limits require a higher attention on combustion efficiency. A high efficiency Diesel engine can be developed only mastering all the parameters that can affect the combustion and, therefore, NOx and soot emissions. In this scenario, computational fluid-dynamics can prove its power guaranteeing a deeper understanding of mixture formation process and combustion. In this work, the development of an engine in order to fulfill Tier 4i emission standard will be presented, the Tier 4i compliance must be reached without an excessive increase of the final cost of the engine. Originally, the engine was a two-valve engine supplied with a DPF, since no SCR aftertreatment is supplied, NOx emission target are achieved through external exhaust gas recirculation and retarding the start of injection. Through combustion process simulations, performed with the CFD code KIVA3D, varying different geometric parameters and the intensity of the swirl ratio, the interaction between the swirl flow field, generated by the intake duct, the reverse squish motion, and motions aerodynamically generated by spray has been investigated leading to a better interaction between the flow field, the fuel spray and the piston bowl geometry and to the definition of a new engine lay-out. The study shows how, given the need of retarded injection for limiting NOx emission, the decrease of swirl ratio, when combined with a proper piston bowl design, allows a significant decrease of soot emissions and the achievement of Tier 4i emission standard. The study has been validated comparing the intake phase simulations, performed with the CFD code Fire v2009 v3, followed by the combustion process performed with the KIVA3D code, with the experimental result obtained from the engine assembled following the developed design. © 2013 The Authors.
Gian Marco Bianchi;Giulio Cazzoli;Claudio Forte;Marco Costa;Marcello Oliva
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/297722
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