Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are part of the same metabolic defect, both having insulin resistance as the main pathogenic mechanism and sharing similar outcomes (i.e., cardiovascular and liver-related mortality). The prevalence of NAFLD is expected to rise, owing to the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and MetS; therefore, the identification of factors responsible for disease progression is essential to devise therapeutic strategies. Areas covered: The available and potential future treatments for NAFLD in combination with MetS are reviewed in this paper, following an extensive literature search and personal experience. Expert opinion: All NAFLD patients should be evaluated for their metabolic, cardiovascular and liver-related risk. Weight loss through lifestyle intervention remains the most comprehensive and safe treatment of NAFLD and associated MetS; however, > 50% of patients fail to achieve target weight loss. Pharmacologic treatment seems to be important for these patients and for NAFLD cases with more advanced liver disease. It temporarily reverses metabolic alterations, but liver disease progresses after the treatment is stopped. Although current treatments are unsatisfactory, new drugs have been proposed and a few innovative compounds are in the pipeline of pharmaceutical companies. Before pharmacologic treatment can be routinely recommended for NAFLD, long-term randomized trials are needed, along with assessments of the safety and benefits of drugs on proper histological outcomes or validated surrogate markers. The intensive control of individual features of MetS remains mandatory.

Managing the combination of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome

MOSCATIELLO, SIMONA;DI LUZIO, RAFFAELLA;MARCHESINI REGGIANI, GIULIO
2011

Abstract

Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are part of the same metabolic defect, both having insulin resistance as the main pathogenic mechanism and sharing similar outcomes (i.e., cardiovascular and liver-related mortality). The prevalence of NAFLD is expected to rise, owing to the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and MetS; therefore, the identification of factors responsible for disease progression is essential to devise therapeutic strategies. Areas covered: The available and potential future treatments for NAFLD in combination with MetS are reviewed in this paper, following an extensive literature search and personal experience. Expert opinion: All NAFLD patients should be evaluated for their metabolic, cardiovascular and liver-related risk. Weight loss through lifestyle intervention remains the most comprehensive and safe treatment of NAFLD and associated MetS; however, > 50% of patients fail to achieve target weight loss. Pharmacologic treatment seems to be important for these patients and for NAFLD cases with more advanced liver disease. It temporarily reverses metabolic alterations, but liver disease progresses after the treatment is stopped. Although current treatments are unsatisfactory, new drugs have been proposed and a few innovative compounds are in the pipeline of pharmaceutical companies. Before pharmacologic treatment can be routinely recommended for NAFLD, long-term randomized trials are needed, along with assessments of the safety and benefits of drugs on proper histological outcomes or validated surrogate markers. The intensive control of individual features of MetS remains mandatory.
S Moscatiello; R Di Luzio; AS Sasdelli; G Marchesini Reggiani
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/108588
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