In this paper we revisit the Brownian motion on the basis of the fractional Langevin equation which turns out to be a particular case of the generalized Langevin equation introduced by Kubo in 1966. The importance of our approach is to model the Brownian motion more realistically than the usual one based on the classical Langevin equation, in that it takes into account also the retarding effects due to hydrodynamic back-flow, i.e. the added mass and the Basset memory drag. We provide the analytical expressions of the correlation functions (both for the random force and the particle velocity) and of the mean squared particle displacement. The random force has been shown to be represented by a superposition of the usual white noise with a "fractional"noise. The velocity correlation function is no longer expressed by a simple exponential but exhibits a slower decay, proportional to t^(-3/2) for long times, which indeed is more realistic. Finally, the mean squared displacement is shown to maintain, for sufficiently long times, the linear behaviour which is typical of normal diffusion, with the same diffusion coefficient of the classical case. However, the Basset history force induces a retarding effect in the establishing of the linear behaviour, which insome cases could appear as a manifestation of anomalous diffusion to be correctly interpreted in experimental measurements. PACS: 02.30.Gp, 02.30.Uu, 02.60.Jh, 05.10.Gg, 05.20.

Brownian motion and anomalous diffusion revisited via a fractional Langevin equation

MAINARDI, FRANCESCO;
2009

Abstract

In this paper we revisit the Brownian motion on the basis of the fractional Langevin equation which turns out to be a particular case of the generalized Langevin equation introduced by Kubo in 1966. The importance of our approach is to model the Brownian motion more realistically than the usual one based on the classical Langevin equation, in that it takes into account also the retarding effects due to hydrodynamic back-flow, i.e. the added mass and the Basset memory drag. We provide the analytical expressions of the correlation functions (both for the random force and the particle velocity) and of the mean squared particle displacement. The random force has been shown to be represented by a superposition of the usual white noise with a "fractional"noise. The velocity correlation function is no longer expressed by a simple exponential but exhibits a slower decay, proportional to t^(-3/2) for long times, which indeed is more realistic. Finally, the mean squared displacement is shown to maintain, for sufficiently long times, the linear behaviour which is typical of normal diffusion, with the same diffusion coefficient of the classical case. However, the Basset history force induces a retarding effect in the establishing of the linear behaviour, which insome cases could appear as a manifestation of anomalous diffusion to be correctly interpreted in experimental measurements. PACS: 02.30.Gp, 02.30.Uu, 02.60.Jh, 05.10.Gg, 05.20.
F. MAINARDI; A. MURA; F. TAMPIERI
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/96518
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