: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of mortality globally. In particular, ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) and cerebrovascular diseases (CBVDs) represent the main drivers of CVD-related deaths. Many literature examples have assessed the association between CVD risk factors and urban greenness. Urban green (UG) may positively affect physical activity, reduce air and noise pollution, and mitigate the heat island effect, which are known risk factors for CVD morbidity. This systematic review aims to assess the effects of urban green spaces on CVD morbidity and mortality. Peer-reviewed research articles with a quantitative association between urban green exposure variables and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes were included. Meta-analyses were conducted for each outcome evaluated in at least three comparable studies. Most of the included studies' results highlighted an inverse correlation between exposure to UG and CVD outcomes. Gender differences were found in four studies, with a protective effect of UG only statistically significant in men. Three meta-analyses were performed, showing an overall protective effect of UG on CVD mortality (HR (95% CI) = 0.94 (0.91, 0.97)), IHD mortality (HR (95% CI) = 0.96 (0.93, 0.99)), and CBVD mortality (HR (95% CI) = 0.96 (0.94, 0.97)). The results of this systematic review suggest that exposure to UG may represent a protective factor for CVDs.

Impacts of Urban Green on Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis / Bianconi, Alessandro; Longo, Giulia; Coa, Angela Andrea; Fiore, Matteo; Gori, Davide. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. - ISSN 1660-4601. - ELETTRONICO. - 20:11(2023), pp. 5966.1-5966.20. [10.3390/ijerph20115966]

Impacts of Urban Green on Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Bianconi, Alessandro;Longo, Giulia;Coa, Angela Andrea;Fiore, Matteo;Gori, Davide
2023

Abstract

: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of mortality globally. In particular, ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) and cerebrovascular diseases (CBVDs) represent the main drivers of CVD-related deaths. Many literature examples have assessed the association between CVD risk factors and urban greenness. Urban green (UG) may positively affect physical activity, reduce air and noise pollution, and mitigate the heat island effect, which are known risk factors for CVD morbidity. This systematic review aims to assess the effects of urban green spaces on CVD morbidity and mortality. Peer-reviewed research articles with a quantitative association between urban green exposure variables and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes were included. Meta-analyses were conducted for each outcome evaluated in at least three comparable studies. Most of the included studies' results highlighted an inverse correlation between exposure to UG and CVD outcomes. Gender differences were found in four studies, with a protective effect of UG only statistically significant in men. Three meta-analyses were performed, showing an overall protective effect of UG on CVD mortality (HR (95% CI) = 0.94 (0.91, 0.97)), IHD mortality (HR (95% CI) = 0.96 (0.93, 0.99)), and CBVD mortality (HR (95% CI) = 0.96 (0.94, 0.97)). The results of this systematic review suggest that exposure to UG may represent a protective factor for CVDs.
2023
Impacts of Urban Green on Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis / Bianconi, Alessandro; Longo, Giulia; Coa, Angela Andrea; Fiore, Matteo; Gori, Davide. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. - ISSN 1660-4601. - ELETTRONICO. - 20:11(2023), pp. 5966.1-5966.20. [10.3390/ijerph20115966]
Bianconi, Alessandro; Longo, Giulia; Coa, Angela Andrea; Fiore, Matteo; Gori, Davide
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/962626
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