Besides their role in cell metabolism, mitochondria display many other functions. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the own genome of the organelle, plays an important role in modulating the inflammatory immune response. When released from the mitochondrion to the cytosol, mtDNA is recognized by cGAS, a cGAMP which activates a pathway leading to enhanced expression of type I interferons, and by NLRP3 inflammasome, which promotes the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1beta and Interleukin-18. Furthermore, mtDNA can be bound by Toll-like receptor 9 in the endosome and activate a pathway that ultimately leads to the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. mtDNA is released in the extracellular space in different forms (free DNA, protein-bound DNA fragments) either as free circulating molecules or encapsulated in extracellular vesicles. In this review, we discussed the latest findings concerning the molecular mechanisms that regulate the release of mtDNA from mitochondria, and the mechanisms that connect mtDNA misplacement to the activation of inflammation in different pathophysiological conditions.

Molecular mechanisms of mtdna-mediated inflammation / De Gaetano A.; Solodka K.; Zanini G.; Selleri V.; Mattioli A. V.; Nasi M.; Pinti M.. - In: CELLS. - ISSN 2073-4409. - ELETTRONICO. - 10:11(2021), pp. 1-21. [10.3390/cells10112898]

Molecular mechanisms of mtdna-mediated inflammation

Mattioli A. V.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2021

Abstract

Besides their role in cell metabolism, mitochondria display many other functions. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the own genome of the organelle, plays an important role in modulating the inflammatory immune response. When released from the mitochondrion to the cytosol, mtDNA is recognized by cGAS, a cGAMP which activates a pathway leading to enhanced expression of type I interferons, and by NLRP3 inflammasome, which promotes the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1beta and Interleukin-18. Furthermore, mtDNA can be bound by Toll-like receptor 9 in the endosome and activate a pathway that ultimately leads to the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. mtDNA is released in the extracellular space in different forms (free DNA, protein-bound DNA fragments) either as free circulating molecules or encapsulated in extracellular vesicles. In this review, we discussed the latest findings concerning the molecular mechanisms that regulate the release of mtDNA from mitochondria, and the mechanisms that connect mtDNA misplacement to the activation of inflammation in different pathophysiological conditions.
2021
Molecular mechanisms of mtdna-mediated inflammation / De Gaetano A.; Solodka K.; Zanini G.; Selleri V.; Mattioli A. V.; Nasi M.; Pinti M.. - In: CELLS. - ISSN 2073-4409. - ELETTRONICO. - 10:11(2021), pp. 1-21. [10.3390/cells10112898]
De Gaetano A.; Solodka K.; Zanini G.; Selleri V.; Mattioli A. V.; Nasi M.; Pinti M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/958501
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