PurposeThe purpose of our study was to provide a novel schematized and comprehensive classification of causes and severity grading system for lumbosacral stenosis.Materials and methodsThe MRI system proposed consisted of a severity grading scale for central and lateral (recess and foramen) stenosis, together with a schematized indication of the main causes of the disease (disc, arthritis, epidural lipomatosis, and their combinations). The system was applied to a cohort of patients from a single Institution in the last 2-years. Two radiologists evaluated all the MRIs to determine intra- and inter-observer reliability according to Cohen Kappa (Kc, for non-ordered categorical variables) and weighted Kappa (Kw, for ordered variables). Two orthopaedic surgeons clinically evaluated all patients and provided a schematic grading system with a central and lateral stenosis clinical score (CS-CS and LS-CS). Associations between ordinals were tested with chi-square test and measured with the Goodman and Kruskal's gamma index (Gi, with 95% confidence interval [95% CI]). Lastly, the most used previous MRI systems were applied, and their performances were compared to the new system proposed.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis. The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis.The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis. The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis. The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis. The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis. The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ConclusionsA standardized visual grading system for lumbar spinal stenosis that takes into account all of the major contributing factors-including disc, arthritis, and lipomatosis, for the central canal, lateral recess, and neural foramina could be a useful and practical tool for defining the stenosis, lowering inter-observer variability, and directing the various treatment options.

A new comprehensive MRI classification and grading system for lumbosacral central and lateral stenosis: clinical application and comparison with previous systems / Spinnato, Paolo; Petrera, Miriana Rosaria; Parmeggiani, Anna; Manzetti, Marco; Ruffilli, Alberto; Faldini, Cesare; D’Agostino, Valerio; Di Carlo, Maddalena; Cumani, Maria Pia; Crombé, Amandine; Matcuk, George R.; Miceli, Marco. - In: LA RADIOLOGIA MEDICA. - ISSN 1826-6983. - ELETTRONICO. - 129:1(2023), pp. 93-106. [10.1007/s11547-023-01741-3]

A new comprehensive MRI classification and grading system for lumbosacral central and lateral stenosis: clinical application and comparison with previous systems

Spinnato, Paolo;Parmeggiani, Anna;Manzetti, Marco;Ruffilli, Alberto;Faldini, Cesare;Di Carlo, Maddalena;Cumani, Maria Pia;
2023

Abstract

PurposeThe purpose of our study was to provide a novel schematized and comprehensive classification of causes and severity grading system for lumbosacral stenosis.Materials and methodsThe MRI system proposed consisted of a severity grading scale for central and lateral (recess and foramen) stenosis, together with a schematized indication of the main causes of the disease (disc, arthritis, epidural lipomatosis, and their combinations). The system was applied to a cohort of patients from a single Institution in the last 2-years. Two radiologists evaluated all the MRIs to determine intra- and inter-observer reliability according to Cohen Kappa (Kc, for non-ordered categorical variables) and weighted Kappa (Kw, for ordered variables). Two orthopaedic surgeons clinically evaluated all patients and provided a schematic grading system with a central and lateral stenosis clinical score (CS-CS and LS-CS). Associations between ordinals were tested with chi-square test and measured with the Goodman and Kruskal's gamma index (Gi, with 95% confidence interval [95% CI]). Lastly, the most used previous MRI systems were applied, and their performances were compared to the new system proposed.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis. The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis.The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis. The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis. The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis. The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ResultsOne hundred and twelve patients were included (55 females-mean age 63.3 +/- 10.7 years).An almost perfect intra-observer agreement for the assessment of central stenosis, foramen stenosis, and lateral recess stenosis was found (Kw = 0.929, 0.928, and 0.924, respectively). The inter-observer agreement was almost perfect for central stenosis and foramen stenosis and substantial for lateral recess stenosis (Kw = 0.863, 0.834, and 0.633, respectively).Whatever the aetiologies involved in central and lateral stenosis, the intra-observer agreement was perfect (all Kc = 1), whereas the inter-observer agreements were almost perfect for arthritis (Kc = 0.838) and lipomatosis (Kc = 0.955) and substantial for disc (Kc = 0.691) regarding central stenosis. The inter-observer agreement for the causes of lateral stenosis was lower and variable, ranging from perfect (lipomatosis) to fair (disc, Kc = 0.224).The grading system revealed a strong association with CS-CS for both readers, with GI = 0.671 (95% CI 0.535-0.807) and 0.603 (95% CI = 0.457-0.749), respectively.The association with MRI grading and LS-CS was moderate for foraminal stenosis and for the concomitant presence of foraminal and lateral recess stenosis, with Gi = 0.337 (95% CI 0.121-0.554) and Gi = 0.299 (95% CI 0.098-0.500), respectively. A weak association was found between lateral recess grading alone and LS-CS with Gi = 0.102 (95% CI 0.193-0.397).The new grading systems showed higher Gi for associations with clinical symptoms, compared with previous ones, both for CS-CS and LS-CS.ConclusionsA standardized visual grading system for lumbar spinal stenosis that takes into account all of the major contributing factors-including disc, arthritis, and lipomatosis, for the central canal, lateral recess, and neural foramina could be a useful and practical tool for defining the stenosis, lowering inter-observer variability, and directing the various treatment options.
2023
A new comprehensive MRI classification and grading system for lumbosacral central and lateral stenosis: clinical application and comparison with previous systems / Spinnato, Paolo; Petrera, Miriana Rosaria; Parmeggiani, Anna; Manzetti, Marco; Ruffilli, Alberto; Faldini, Cesare; D’Agostino, Valerio; Di Carlo, Maddalena; Cumani, Maria Pia; Crombé, Amandine; Matcuk, George R.; Miceli, Marco. - In: LA RADIOLOGIA MEDICA. - ISSN 1826-6983. - ELETTRONICO. - 129:1(2023), pp. 93-106. [10.1007/s11547-023-01741-3]
Spinnato, Paolo; Petrera, Miriana Rosaria; Parmeggiani, Anna; Manzetti, Marco; Ruffilli, Alberto; Faldini, Cesare; D’Agostino, Valerio; Di Carlo, Maddalena; Cumani, Maria Pia; Crombé, Amandine; Matcuk, George R.; Miceli, Marco
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/958486
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