Many healthy people suffer from milk-related gastrointestinal discomfort (GID) despite not being lactose intolerant; the mechanisms underpinning such condition are unknown. This study aimed to explore milk protein digestion and related physiological responses (primary outcome), gut microbiome and gut permeability in 19 lactose-tolerant healthy nonhabitual milk consumers [NHMCs] reporting GID after consuming cow milk compared to 20 habitual milk consumers [HMCs] without GID. NHMCs and HMCs participated in a milk-load (250 mL) test, underwent blood sample collection at 6 time points over 6 h after milk consumption and collected urine samples and GID self-reports over 24 h. We measured the concentrations of 31 milk-derived bioactive peptides (BAPs), 20 amino acids, 4 hormones, 5 endocannabinoid system mediators, glucose and the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) activity in blood and indoxyl sulfate in urine samples. Subjects also participated in a gut permeability test and delivered feces sample for gut microbiome analysis. Results showed that, compared to HMCs, milk consumption in NHMCs, along with GID, elicited a slower and lower increase in circulating BAPs, lower responses of ghrelin, insulin, and anandamide, a higher glucose response and serum DPPIV activity. The gut permeability of the two groups was similar, while the habitual diet, which was lower in dairy products and higher in the dietary-fibre-to-protein ratio in NHMCs, possibly shaped the gut microbiome; NHMCs exhibited lower abundance of Bifidobacteria, higher abundance of Prevotella and lower abundance of protease-coding genes, which may have reduced protein digestion, as evidenced by lower urinary excretion of indoxyl sulfate. In conclusion, the findings showed that a less efficient digestion of milk proteins, supported by a lower proteolytic capability of the gut microbiome, may explain GID in healthy people after milk consumption.

Milk protein digestion and the gut microbiome influence gastrointestinal discomfort after cow milk consumption in healthy subjects

Barbara G.;
2023

Abstract

Many healthy people suffer from milk-related gastrointestinal discomfort (GID) despite not being lactose intolerant; the mechanisms underpinning such condition are unknown. This study aimed to explore milk protein digestion and related physiological responses (primary outcome), gut microbiome and gut permeability in 19 lactose-tolerant healthy nonhabitual milk consumers [NHMCs] reporting GID after consuming cow milk compared to 20 habitual milk consumers [HMCs] without GID. NHMCs and HMCs participated in a milk-load (250 mL) test, underwent blood sample collection at 6 time points over 6 h after milk consumption and collected urine samples and GID self-reports over 24 h. We measured the concentrations of 31 milk-derived bioactive peptides (BAPs), 20 amino acids, 4 hormones, 5 endocannabinoid system mediators, glucose and the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) activity in blood and indoxyl sulfate in urine samples. Subjects also participated in a gut permeability test and delivered feces sample for gut microbiome analysis. Results showed that, compared to HMCs, milk consumption in NHMCs, along with GID, elicited a slower and lower increase in circulating BAPs, lower responses of ghrelin, insulin, and anandamide, a higher glucose response and serum DPPIV activity. The gut permeability of the two groups was similar, while the habitual diet, which was lower in dairy products and higher in the dietary-fibre-to-protein ratio in NHMCs, possibly shaped the gut microbiome; NHMCs exhibited lower abundance of Bifidobacteria, higher abundance of Prevotella and lower abundance of protease-coding genes, which may have reduced protein digestion, as evidenced by lower urinary excretion of indoxyl sulfate. In conclusion, the findings showed that a less efficient digestion of milk proteins, supported by a lower proteolytic capability of the gut microbiome, may explain GID in healthy people after milk consumption.
2023
Tagliamonte S.; Barone Lumaga R.; De Filippis F.; Valentino V.; Ferracane R.; Guerville M.; Gandolfi I.; Barbara G.; Ercolini D.; Vitaglione P.
File in questo prodotto:
Eventuali allegati, non sono esposti

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/957374
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 5
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 5
social impact