Background & Aims: Alcohol abuse and metabolic disorders are leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Alcohol-related aetiology is associated with a worse prognosis compared with viral agents, because of the lower percentage of patients diagnosed with HCC under routine surveillance and a higher burden of comorbidity in alcohol abusers. This study aimed to describe the evolving clinical scenario of alcohol-related HCC over 15 years (2006–2020) in Italy. Methods: Data from the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA) registry were used: 1,391 patients were allocated to three groups based on the year of HCC diagnosis (2006–2010; 2011–2015; 2016–2020). Patient characteristics, HCC treatment, and overall survival were compared among groups. Survival predictors were also investigated. Results: Approximately 80% of alcohol-related HCCs were classified as cases of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease. Throughout the quinquennia, <50% of HCCs were detected by surveillance programmes. The tumour burden at diagnosis was slightly reduced but not enough to change the distribution of the ITA.LI.CA cancer stages. Intra-arterial and targeted systemic therapies increased across quinquennia. A modest improvement in survival was observed in the last quinquennia, particularly after 12 months of patient observation. Cancer stage, HCC treatment, and presence of oesophageal varices were independent predictors of survival. Conclusions: In the past 15 years, modest improvements have been obtained in outcomes of alcohol-related HCC, attributed mainly to underuse of surveillance programmes and the consequent low amenability to curative treatments. Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease is a widespread condition in alcohol abusers, but its presence did not show a pivotal prognostic role once HCC had developed. Instead, the presence of oesophageal varices, an independent poor prognosticator, should be considered in patient management and refining of prognostic systems. Impact and Implications: Alcohol abuse is a leading and growing cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide and is associated with a worse prognosis compared with other aetiologies. We assessed the evolutionary landscape of alcohol-related HCC over 15 years in Italy. A high cumulative prevalence (78%) of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease, with signs of metabolic dysfunction, was observed in HCC patients with unhealthy excessive alcohol consumption. The alcohol + metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease condition tended to progressively increase over time. A modest improvement in survival occurred over the study period, likely because of the persistent underuse of surveillance programmes and, consequently, the lack of improvement in the cancer stage at diagnosis and the patients’ eligibility for curative treatments. Alongside the known prognostic factors for HCC (cancer stage and treatment), the presence of oesophageal varices was an independent predictor of poor survival, suggesting that this clinical feature should be carefully considered in patient management and should be included in prognostic systems/scores for HCC to improve their performance.

Landscape of alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma in the last 15 years highlights the need to expand surveillance programs / Reggidori N.; Bucci L.; Santi V.; Stefanini B.; Lani L.; Rampoldi D.; Ghittoni G.; Farinati F.; Masotto A.; Stefanini B.; Mega A.; Biasini E.; Foschi F.G.; Svegliati-Baroni G.; Sangiovanni A.; Campani C.; Raimondo G.; Vidili G.; Gasbarrini A.; Celsa C.; Di Marco M.; Giannini E.G.; Sacco R.; Brunetto M.R.; Azzaroli F.; Magalotti D.; Morisco F.; Rapaccini G.L.; Nardone G.; Vitale A.; Trevisani F.; Biselli M.; Caraceni P.; Gramenzi A.; Benevento F.; Granito A.; Muratori L.; Piscaglia F.; Tovoli F.; Allegrini G.; Camma C.; Cabibbo G.; Giacchetto C.M.; Giuffrida P.; Grassini M.V.; Grova M.; Rancatore G.; Stornello C.; Adotti V.; Cavoli T.L.; Marra F.; Rosi M.; Bevilacqua V.; Borghi A.; Napoli L.; Conti F.; Frassineti G.L.; Migliano M.T.; de Matthaeis N.; Ponziani F.R.; Missale G.; Olivani A.; Capasso M.; Cossiga V.; Guarino M.; Marina Cela E.; Facciorusso A.; Graziosi C.; Lauria V.; Pelecca G.; Schirripa M.; Chegai F.; Raso A.; Bozzi A.; Franze M.S.; Saitta C.; Sauchella A.; Dajti E.; Ravaioli F.; Plaz Torres M.C.; Pieri G.; Oliveri F.; Ricco G.; Romagnoli V.; Inno A.; Marchetti F.; Coccoli P.; Malerba A.; Cappelli A.; Golfieri R.; Mosconi C.; Renzulli M.. - In: JHEP REPORTS. - ISSN 2589-5559. - ELETTRONICO. - 5:8(2023), pp. 100784.1-100784.16. [10.1016/j.jhepr.2023.100784]

Landscape of alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma in the last 15 years highlights the need to expand surveillance programs

Reggidori N.;Bucci L.;Santi V.;Stefanini B.;Lani L.;Rampoldi D.;Stefanini B.;Raimondo G.;Vidili G.;Azzaroli F.;Trevisani F.
;
Biselli M.;Caraceni P.;Gramenzi A.;Benevento F.;Granito A.;Muratori L.;Piscaglia F.;Tovoli F.;Bevilacqua V.;Migliano M. T.;Facciorusso A.;Dajti E.;Ravaioli F.;Golfieri R.;Mosconi C.;Renzulli M.
2023

Abstract

Background & Aims: Alcohol abuse and metabolic disorders are leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Alcohol-related aetiology is associated with a worse prognosis compared with viral agents, because of the lower percentage of patients diagnosed with HCC under routine surveillance and a higher burden of comorbidity in alcohol abusers. This study aimed to describe the evolving clinical scenario of alcohol-related HCC over 15 years (2006–2020) in Italy. Methods: Data from the Italian Liver Cancer (ITA.LI.CA) registry were used: 1,391 patients were allocated to three groups based on the year of HCC diagnosis (2006–2010; 2011–2015; 2016–2020). Patient characteristics, HCC treatment, and overall survival were compared among groups. Survival predictors were also investigated. Results: Approximately 80% of alcohol-related HCCs were classified as cases of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease. Throughout the quinquennia, <50% of HCCs were detected by surveillance programmes. The tumour burden at diagnosis was slightly reduced but not enough to change the distribution of the ITA.LI.CA cancer stages. Intra-arterial and targeted systemic therapies increased across quinquennia. A modest improvement in survival was observed in the last quinquennia, particularly after 12 months of patient observation. Cancer stage, HCC treatment, and presence of oesophageal varices were independent predictors of survival. Conclusions: In the past 15 years, modest improvements have been obtained in outcomes of alcohol-related HCC, attributed mainly to underuse of surveillance programmes and the consequent low amenability to curative treatments. Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease is a widespread condition in alcohol abusers, but its presence did not show a pivotal prognostic role once HCC had developed. Instead, the presence of oesophageal varices, an independent poor prognosticator, should be considered in patient management and refining of prognostic systems. Impact and Implications: Alcohol abuse is a leading and growing cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide and is associated with a worse prognosis compared with other aetiologies. We assessed the evolutionary landscape of alcohol-related HCC over 15 years in Italy. A high cumulative prevalence (78%) of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease, with signs of metabolic dysfunction, was observed in HCC patients with unhealthy excessive alcohol consumption. The alcohol + metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease condition tended to progressively increase over time. A modest improvement in survival occurred over the study period, likely because of the persistent underuse of surveillance programmes and, consequently, the lack of improvement in the cancer stage at diagnosis and the patients’ eligibility for curative treatments. Alongside the known prognostic factors for HCC (cancer stage and treatment), the presence of oesophageal varices was an independent predictor of poor survival, suggesting that this clinical feature should be carefully considered in patient management and should be included in prognostic systems/scores for HCC to improve their performance.
2023
Landscape of alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma in the last 15 years highlights the need to expand surveillance programs / Reggidori N.; Bucci L.; Santi V.; Stefanini B.; Lani L.; Rampoldi D.; Ghittoni G.; Farinati F.; Masotto A.; Stefanini B.; Mega A.; Biasini E.; Foschi F.G.; Svegliati-Baroni G.; Sangiovanni A.; Campani C.; Raimondo G.; Vidili G.; Gasbarrini A.; Celsa C.; Di Marco M.; Giannini E.G.; Sacco R.; Brunetto M.R.; Azzaroli F.; Magalotti D.; Morisco F.; Rapaccini G.L.; Nardone G.; Vitale A.; Trevisani F.; Biselli M.; Caraceni P.; Gramenzi A.; Benevento F.; Granito A.; Muratori L.; Piscaglia F.; Tovoli F.; Allegrini G.; Camma C.; Cabibbo G.; Giacchetto C.M.; Giuffrida P.; Grassini M.V.; Grova M.; Rancatore G.; Stornello C.; Adotti V.; Cavoli T.L.; Marra F.; Rosi M.; Bevilacqua V.; Borghi A.; Napoli L.; Conti F.; Frassineti G.L.; Migliano M.T.; de Matthaeis N.; Ponziani F.R.; Missale G.; Olivani A.; Capasso M.; Cossiga V.; Guarino M.; Marina Cela E.; Facciorusso A.; Graziosi C.; Lauria V.; Pelecca G.; Schirripa M.; Chegai F.; Raso A.; Bozzi A.; Franze M.S.; Saitta C.; Sauchella A.; Dajti E.; Ravaioli F.; Plaz Torres M.C.; Pieri G.; Oliveri F.; Ricco G.; Romagnoli V.; Inno A.; Marchetti F.; Coccoli P.; Malerba A.; Cappelli A.; Golfieri R.; Mosconi C.; Renzulli M.. - In: JHEP REPORTS. - ISSN 2589-5559. - ELETTRONICO. - 5:8(2023), pp. 100784.1-100784.16. [10.1016/j.jhepr.2023.100784]
Reggidori N.; Bucci L.; Santi V.; Stefanini B.; Lani L.; Rampoldi D.; Ghittoni G.; Farinati F.; Masotto A.; Stefanini B.; Mega A.; Biasini E.; Foschi F.G.; Svegliati-Baroni G.; Sangiovanni A.; Campani C.; Raimondo G.; Vidili G.; Gasbarrini A.; Celsa C.; Di Marco M.; Giannini E.G.; Sacco R.; Brunetto M.R.; Azzaroli F.; Magalotti D.; Morisco F.; Rapaccini G.L.; Nardone G.; Vitale A.; Trevisani F.; Biselli M.; Caraceni P.; Gramenzi A.; Benevento F.; Granito A.; Muratori L.; Piscaglia F.; Tovoli F.; Allegrini G.; Camma C.; Cabibbo G.; Giacchetto C.M.; Giuffrida P.; Grassini M.V.; Grova M.; Rancatore G.; Stornello C.; Adotti V.; Cavoli T.L.; Marra F.; Rosi M.; Bevilacqua V.; Borghi A.; Napoli L.; Conti F.; Frassineti G.L.; Migliano M.T.; de Matthaeis N.; Ponziani F.R.; Missale G.; Olivani A.; Capasso M.; Cossiga V.; Guarino M.; Marina Cela E.; Facciorusso A.; Graziosi C.; Lauria V.; Pelecca G.; Schirripa M.; Chegai F.; Raso A.; Bozzi A.; Franze M.S.; Saitta C.; Sauchella A.; Dajti E.; Ravaioli F.; Plaz Torres M.C.; Pieri G.; Oliveri F.; Ricco G.; Romagnoli V.; Inno A.; Marchetti F.; Coccoli P.; Malerba A.; Cappelli A.; Golfieri R.; Mosconi C.; Renzulli M.
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