Background and objectives: Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is still largely underdiagnosed or diagnosed too late in children. Difficulties in obtaining rapid and reliable diagnostic evaluations of the condition in clinical practice partially explain this problem. Predictors of NT1 include cataplexy and sleep-onset REM periods (SOREMPs), documented during nocturnal polysomnography (N-PSG) or through the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), although low CSF hypocretin-1 (CSF hcrt-1) is the definitive biological disease marker. Obtaining reliable MSLT results is not always feasible in children; therefore, this study aimed to validate daytime continuous polysomnography (D-PSG) as an alternative diagnostic tool. Methods: Two hundred consecutive patients aged younger than 18 years (112 with NT1; 25 with other hypersomnias, including narcolepsy type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia; and 63 with subjective excessive daytime sleepiness) were randomly split into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 133) for the identification of diagnostic markers and group 2 (n = 67) for the validation of the detected markers. The D-PSG data collected included the number of spontaneous naps, total sleep time, and the number of daytime SOREMPs (d-SOREMP). D-PSG data were tested against CSF hcrt-1 deficiency (NT1 diagnosis) as the gold standard using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in group 1. ROC diagnostic performances of single and combined D-PSG parameters were tested in group 1 and validated in group 2. Results: In group 1, the areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) were 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.96) for d-SOREMPs, 0.81 (95% CI 0.74-0.89) for the number of spontaneous naps, and 0.70 (95% CI 0.60-0.79) for total sleep time. A d-SOREMP count ≥1 (sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 72%), coupled with a diurnal total sleep time above 60 minutes (sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 91%), identified NT1 in group 1 with high reliability (area under the ROC curve of 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). These results were confirmed in the validation group with an AUC of 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.97). Discussion: D-PSG recording is an easily performed, cost-effective, and reliable tool for identifying NT1 in children. Further studies should confirm its validity with home D-PSG monitoring. These alternative procedures could be used to confirm NT1 diagnosis and curtail diagnostic delay.

Pizza, F., Vignatelli, L., Vandi, S., Zenesini, C., Biscarini, F., Franceschini, C., et al. (2024). Role of Daytime Continuous Polysomnography in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Narcolepsy Type 1. NEUROLOGY, 102(1), 1-11 [10.1212/WNL.0000000000207815].

Role of Daytime Continuous Polysomnography in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Narcolepsy Type 1

Pizza, Fabio;Vignatelli, Luca;Vandi, Stefano;Zenesini, Corrado;Biscarini, Francesco;Franceschini, Christian;Antelmi, Elena;Ingravallo, Francesca;Plazzi, Giuseppe
2024

Abstract

Background and objectives: Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is still largely underdiagnosed or diagnosed too late in children. Difficulties in obtaining rapid and reliable diagnostic evaluations of the condition in clinical practice partially explain this problem. Predictors of NT1 include cataplexy and sleep-onset REM periods (SOREMPs), documented during nocturnal polysomnography (N-PSG) or through the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), although low CSF hypocretin-1 (CSF hcrt-1) is the definitive biological disease marker. Obtaining reliable MSLT results is not always feasible in children; therefore, this study aimed to validate daytime continuous polysomnography (D-PSG) as an alternative diagnostic tool. Methods: Two hundred consecutive patients aged younger than 18 years (112 with NT1; 25 with other hypersomnias, including narcolepsy type 2 and idiopathic hypersomnia; and 63 with subjective excessive daytime sleepiness) were randomly split into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 133) for the identification of diagnostic markers and group 2 (n = 67) for the validation of the detected markers. The D-PSG data collected included the number of spontaneous naps, total sleep time, and the number of daytime SOREMPs (d-SOREMP). D-PSG data were tested against CSF hcrt-1 deficiency (NT1 diagnosis) as the gold standard using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in group 1. ROC diagnostic performances of single and combined D-PSG parameters were tested in group 1 and validated in group 2. Results: In group 1, the areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) were 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.96) for d-SOREMPs, 0.81 (95% CI 0.74-0.89) for the number of spontaneous naps, and 0.70 (95% CI 0.60-0.79) for total sleep time. A d-SOREMP count ≥1 (sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 72%), coupled with a diurnal total sleep time above 60 minutes (sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 91%), identified NT1 in group 1 with high reliability (area under the ROC curve of 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.97). These results were confirmed in the validation group with an AUC of 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.97). Discussion: D-PSG recording is an easily performed, cost-effective, and reliable tool for identifying NT1 in children. Further studies should confirm its validity with home D-PSG monitoring. These alternative procedures could be used to confirm NT1 diagnosis and curtail diagnostic delay.
2024
Pizza, F., Vignatelli, L., Vandi, S., Zenesini, C., Biscarini, F., Franceschini, C., et al. (2024). Role of Daytime Continuous Polysomnography in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Narcolepsy Type 1. NEUROLOGY, 102(1), 1-11 [10.1212/WNL.0000000000207815].
Pizza, Fabio; Vignatelli, Luca; Vandi, Stefano; Zenesini, Corrado; Biscarini, Francesco; Franceschini, Christian; Antelmi, Elena; Ingravallo, Francesc...espandi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/954631
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