The most distinctive features of tree mineral nutrition in organic farming systems is related to the concepts that the target of fertilization is the soil rather than the tree. The best way to achive this goal is to increase soil organic matter (OM) content through the use of: 1. raw or stabilized manures (i. e. compost obtained from the controlled biological decomposition of organic material), 2. floor permanent grass management, 3. mulches, 4. abscised leaves, and pruned wood, etc. Fresh OM, such as raw manure (animal and green), cover crop, mulch, etc. with a C:N ratio < 20 should be tilled into the soil to achieve a net release of N. If OM with a C:N ratio > 20 is incorporated into the soil, microbes use available soil N to break down organic residues and a soil N depletion is expected as well as an increase in soil humus content. Attention must be payed when fresh OM is incorporated into the soil because it may create anoxia conditions. When nutrient deficiencies appear, fertilizers with a fast release of minerals such as blood meal (N = 5-12%), fish meal (N = 5%), natural guano (N = 16%), poultry manure (N = 3.7%) should be used. Stabilized manure and municipal solid waste (MSW) compost present a slower N release rate, but allow a complete ‘nutrient cycling’ (the breakdown of organic substances, release of energy and matter captured by life processes and their use to stimulate the new growth). In addition, by incorporating MSW composts into the soil there is a sequestration of C that otherwise would follow disposal processes with a potential release of CO2 in the atmosphere. Iron organic management of fruit trees is a major issue in calcareous soil, where prevention of leaf chlorosis might be achieved by appropriate agronomic techniques that include: introduction of tolerant rootstocks, increase in OM soil content, consociation with graminaceous such as Festuca spp. known to produce natural Fe chelators phytosiderophores (i. e. mugineic acid), use of blood meal that contains the Fe chelator heme group.

Nutritional implications of organic management in fruit tree productio

TOSELLI, MORENO
2010

Abstract

The most distinctive features of tree mineral nutrition in organic farming systems is related to the concepts that the target of fertilization is the soil rather than the tree. The best way to achive this goal is to increase soil organic matter (OM) content through the use of: 1. raw or stabilized manures (i. e. compost obtained from the controlled biological decomposition of organic material), 2. floor permanent grass management, 3. mulches, 4. abscised leaves, and pruned wood, etc. Fresh OM, such as raw manure (animal and green), cover crop, mulch, etc. with a C:N ratio < 20 should be tilled into the soil to achieve a net release of N. If OM with a C:N ratio > 20 is incorporated into the soil, microbes use available soil N to break down organic residues and a soil N depletion is expected as well as an increase in soil humus content. Attention must be payed when fresh OM is incorporated into the soil because it may create anoxia conditions. When nutrient deficiencies appear, fertilizers with a fast release of minerals such as blood meal (N = 5-12%), fish meal (N = 5%), natural guano (N = 16%), poultry manure (N = 3.7%) should be used. Stabilized manure and municipal solid waste (MSW) compost present a slower N release rate, but allow a complete ‘nutrient cycling’ (the breakdown of organic substances, release of energy and matter captured by life processes and their use to stimulate the new growth). In addition, by incorporating MSW composts into the soil there is a sequestration of C that otherwise would follow disposal processes with a potential release of CO2 in the atmosphere. Iron organic management of fruit trees is a major issue in calcareous soil, where prevention of leaf chlorosis might be achieved by appropriate agronomic techniques that include: introduction of tolerant rootstocks, increase in OM soil content, consociation with graminaceous such as Festuca spp. known to produce natural Fe chelators phytosiderophores (i. e. mugineic acid), use of blood meal that contains the Fe chelator heme group.
Acta Horticulturae
41
48
TOSELLI M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/95438
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