Second-generation Anticoagulant Rodenticides (ARs) can be critical for carnivores, due to their widespread use and impacts. However, although many studies explored the impacts of ARs on small and mesocarnivores, none assessed the extent to which they could contaminate large carnivores in anthropized landscapes. We filled this gap by exploring spatiotemporal trends in grey wolf (Canis lupus) exposure to ARs in central and northern Italy, by subjecting a large sample of dead wolves (n = 186) to the LC-MS/MS method. Most wolves (n = 115/186, 61.8 %) tested positive for ARs (1 compound, n = 36; 2 compounds, n = 47; 3 compounds, n = 16; 4 or more compounds, n = 16). Bromadiolone, Brodifacoum and Difenacoum, were the most common compounds, with Brodifacoum andBromadiolone being the ARs that co-occurred the most (n = 61). Both the probability of testing positive for multiple ARs and the concentration of Brodifacoum, and Bromadiolone in the liver, systematically increased in wolves that were found at more anthropized sites. Moreover, wolves became more likely to test positive for ARs through time, particularly after 2020. Our results underline that rodent control, based on ARs, increases the risks of unintentional poisoning of non-target wildlife. However, this risk does not only involve small and mesocarnivores, but also large carnivores at the top of the food chain, such as wolves. Therefore, rodent control is adding one further conservation threat to endangered large carnivores in anthropized landscapes of Europe, whose severity could increase over time and be far higher than previously thought. Large-scale monitoring schemes for ARs in European large carnivores should be devised as soon as possible.

Musto, C., Cerri, J., Capizzi, D., Fontana, M.C., Rubini, S., Merialdi, G., et al. (2024). First evidence of widespread positivity to anticoagulant rodenticides in grey wolves (Canis lupus). SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 915, 1-11 [10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.169990].

First evidence of widespread positivity to anticoagulant rodenticides in grey wolves (Canis lupus)

Musto, Carmela
Primo
;
Delogu, Mauro;
2024

Abstract

Second-generation Anticoagulant Rodenticides (ARs) can be critical for carnivores, due to their widespread use and impacts. However, although many studies explored the impacts of ARs on small and mesocarnivores, none assessed the extent to which they could contaminate large carnivores in anthropized landscapes. We filled this gap by exploring spatiotemporal trends in grey wolf (Canis lupus) exposure to ARs in central and northern Italy, by subjecting a large sample of dead wolves (n = 186) to the LC-MS/MS method. Most wolves (n = 115/186, 61.8 %) tested positive for ARs (1 compound, n = 36; 2 compounds, n = 47; 3 compounds, n = 16; 4 or more compounds, n = 16). Bromadiolone, Brodifacoum and Difenacoum, were the most common compounds, with Brodifacoum andBromadiolone being the ARs that co-occurred the most (n = 61). Both the probability of testing positive for multiple ARs and the concentration of Brodifacoum, and Bromadiolone in the liver, systematically increased in wolves that were found at more anthropized sites. Moreover, wolves became more likely to test positive for ARs through time, particularly after 2020. Our results underline that rodent control, based on ARs, increases the risks of unintentional poisoning of non-target wildlife. However, this risk does not only involve small and mesocarnivores, but also large carnivores at the top of the food chain, such as wolves. Therefore, rodent control is adding one further conservation threat to endangered large carnivores in anthropized landscapes of Europe, whose severity could increase over time and be far higher than previously thought. Large-scale monitoring schemes for ARs in European large carnivores should be devised as soon as possible.
2024
Musto, C., Cerri, J., Capizzi, D., Fontana, M.C., Rubini, S., Merialdi, G., et al. (2024). First evidence of widespread positivity to anticoagulant rodenticides in grey wolves (Canis lupus). SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, 915, 1-11 [10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.169990].
Musto, Carmela; Cerri, Jacopo; Capizzi, Dario; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Rubini, Silva; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Berzi, Duccio; Ciuti, Francesca; Santi, Ann...espandi
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