Background: Burn injury causes profound pathophysiological changes in the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties of antibiotics. Infections are among the principal complications after burn injuries, and broad-spectrum beta-lactams are the cornerstone of treatment. The aim of this study was to review the evidence for the best regimens of these antibiotics in the burn patient population. Methods: We performed a systematic review of evidence available on MEDLINE (from its inception to 2023) of pharmacology studies that focused on the use of 13 broad-spectrum beta-lactams in burn patients. We extracted and synthetized data on drug regimens and their ability to attain adequate PK/PD targets. Results: We selected 35 studies for analysis. Overall, studies showed that both high doses and the continuous infusion (CI) of broad-spectrum beta-lactams were needed to achieve internationally-recognized PK/PD targets, ideally with therapeutic drug monitoring guidance. The most extensive evidence concerned meropenem, but similar conclusions could be drawn about piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem-clinastatin and aztreonam. Insufficient data were available about new beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, ceftaroline, ceftobiprole and cefiderocol. Conclusions: Both high doses and CI of broad-spectrum beta-lactams are needed when treating burn patients due to the peculiar changes in the PK/PD of antibiotics in this population. Further studies are needed, particularly about newer antibiotics.

Which Are the Best Regimens of Broad-Spectrum Beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Burn Patients? A Systematic Review of Evidence from Pharmacology Studies

Raumer, Luigi;Cricca, Monica;Melandri, Davide;Pea, Federico;
2023

Abstract

Background: Burn injury causes profound pathophysiological changes in the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties of antibiotics. Infections are among the principal complications after burn injuries, and broad-spectrum beta-lactams are the cornerstone of treatment. The aim of this study was to review the evidence for the best regimens of these antibiotics in the burn patient population. Methods: We performed a systematic review of evidence available on MEDLINE (from its inception to 2023) of pharmacology studies that focused on the use of 13 broad-spectrum beta-lactams in burn patients. We extracted and synthetized data on drug regimens and their ability to attain adequate PK/PD targets. Results: We selected 35 studies for analysis. Overall, studies showed that both high doses and the continuous infusion (CI) of broad-spectrum beta-lactams were needed to achieve internationally-recognized PK/PD targets, ideally with therapeutic drug monitoring guidance. The most extensive evidence concerned meropenem, but similar conclusions could be drawn about piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem-clinastatin and aztreonam. Insufficient data were available about new beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, ceftaroline, ceftobiprole and cefiderocol. Conclusions: Both high doses and CI of broad-spectrum beta-lactams are needed when treating burn patients due to the peculiar changes in the PK/PD of antibiotics in this population. Further studies are needed, particularly about newer antibiotics.
2023
Tebano, Gianpiero; la Martire, Giulia; Raumer, Luigi; Cricca, Monica; Melandri, Davide; Pea, Federico; Cristini, Francesco
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/953175
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