Background Arbutus unedo L. is a wild tree of Mediterranean regions used as food and in traditional medicine and important for afforestation programs. There is no detailed information available on the variation of A. unedo leaves metabolome across the seasons. The leaves were analyzed by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR)-based metabolomics, comparing samples harvested across the seasons and in ten different natural habitats of Sardinia (Italy).Results Multivariate analysis showed the impact of seasonal variation on the metabolome: glucose and quinic acid increased in summer, while in spring sucrose was accumulated. beta-Arbutin, the main known active principle of A. unedo, generally reached the highest concentration in autumn. In winter, O-beta-methylglucose, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), flavonols (quercetin-3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-rhamnoside), catechin, and gallocatechin increased. Characteristic metabolomic features were found also for samples collected in different locations. For instance, trees growing at the highest altitude and exposed to lower temperatures produced less flavonols and catechins. The only sample collected on trees growing on limestones, dolomites, and dolomitic limestones type of soil showed generally the highest content of arbutin. The highest phenolics content was found during spring, while samples collected on flowering branches in winter were the ones with the highest flavonoid content. The antioxidant activity was also variated, ranging from 1.3 to 10.1 mg of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mL of extract, and it was positively correlated to both total phenolics and flavonoid content. Winter samples showed the lowest antibacterial activity, while summer and autumn ones exhibited the highest activity (IC50 values ranging from 17.3 to 42.3 mu g/mL against Staphylococcal species).Conclusion This work provides H-1 -NMR fingerprinting of A. unedo leaves, elucidating the main metabolites and their variations during seasons. On the basis of arbutin content, autumn could be considered the balsamic period of this taxon. Samples collected in this season were also the most active ones as antibacterial. Moreover, an interesting metabolomic profile enriched in catechins and flavonols was observed in leaves collected in winter on flowering branches which were endowed with high antioxidant potential.

Metabolomic analysis and bioactivities of Arbutus unedo leaves harvested across the seasons in different natural habitats of Sardinia (Italy) / Sanna C.; Chiocchio I.; Mandrone M.; Bonvicini F.; Gentilomi G.A.; Trincia S.; Poli F.. - In: BMC PLANT BIOLOGY. - ISSN 1471-2229. - ELETTRONICO. - 23:1(2023), pp. 490-505. [10.1186/s12870-023-04497-0]

Metabolomic analysis and bioactivities of Arbutus unedo leaves harvested across the seasons in different natural habitats of Sardinia (Italy)

Chiocchio I.
Co-primo
;
Mandrone M.
;
Bonvicini F.;Gentilomi G. A.;Trincia S.;Poli F.
Ultimo
Supervision
2023

Abstract

Background Arbutus unedo L. is a wild tree of Mediterranean regions used as food and in traditional medicine and important for afforestation programs. There is no detailed information available on the variation of A. unedo leaves metabolome across the seasons. The leaves were analyzed by Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR)-based metabolomics, comparing samples harvested across the seasons and in ten different natural habitats of Sardinia (Italy).Results Multivariate analysis showed the impact of seasonal variation on the metabolome: glucose and quinic acid increased in summer, while in spring sucrose was accumulated. beta-Arbutin, the main known active principle of A. unedo, generally reached the highest concentration in autumn. In winter, O-beta-methylglucose, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), flavonols (quercetin-3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-rhamnoside), catechin, and gallocatechin increased. Characteristic metabolomic features were found also for samples collected in different locations. For instance, trees growing at the highest altitude and exposed to lower temperatures produced less flavonols and catechins. The only sample collected on trees growing on limestones, dolomites, and dolomitic limestones type of soil showed generally the highest content of arbutin. The highest phenolics content was found during spring, while samples collected on flowering branches in winter were the ones with the highest flavonoid content. The antioxidant activity was also variated, ranging from 1.3 to 10.1 mg of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mL of extract, and it was positively correlated to both total phenolics and flavonoid content. Winter samples showed the lowest antibacterial activity, while summer and autumn ones exhibited the highest activity (IC50 values ranging from 17.3 to 42.3 mu g/mL against Staphylococcal species).Conclusion This work provides H-1 -NMR fingerprinting of A. unedo leaves, elucidating the main metabolites and their variations during seasons. On the basis of arbutin content, autumn could be considered the balsamic period of this taxon. Samples collected in this season were also the most active ones as antibacterial. Moreover, an interesting metabolomic profile enriched in catechins and flavonols was observed in leaves collected in winter on flowering branches which were endowed with high antioxidant potential.
2023
Metabolomic analysis and bioactivities of Arbutus unedo leaves harvested across the seasons in different natural habitats of Sardinia (Italy) / Sanna C.; Chiocchio I.; Mandrone M.; Bonvicini F.; Gentilomi G.A.; Trincia S.; Poli F.. - In: BMC PLANT BIOLOGY. - ISSN 1471-2229. - ELETTRONICO. - 23:1(2023), pp. 490-505. [10.1186/s12870-023-04497-0]
Sanna C.; Chiocchio I.; Mandrone M.; Bonvicini F.; Gentilomi G.A.; Trincia S.; Poli F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/952541
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