Monitoring fishery activity is essential for resource planning and guaranteeing fisheries sustainability. Large fishing vessels constantly and continuously communicate their positions via Automatic Identification System (AIS) or Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMSs). These systems can use radio or Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to transmit data. Processing and integrating these big data with other fisheries data allows for exploring the relations between socio-economic and ecosystem assets in marine areas, which is fundamental in fishery monitoring. In this context, estimating actual fishing activity from time series of AIS and VMS data would enhance the correct identification of fishing activity patterns and help assess regulations' effectiveness. However, these data might contain gaps because of technical issues such as limited coverage of the terrestrial receivers or saturated transmission bands. Other sources of data gaps are adverse meteorological conditions and voluntary switch-offs. Gaps may also include hidden (unreported) fishing activity whose quantification would improve actual fishing activity estimation. This paper presents a workflow for AIS/VMS big-data analysis that estimates potential unreported fishing activity hotspots in a marine area. The workflow uses a statistical spatial analysis over vessel speeds and coordinates and a multi-source data integration approach that can work on multiple areas and multiple analysis scales. Specifically, it (i) estimates fishing activity locations and rebuilds data gaps, (ii) estimates the potential unreported fishing hour distribution and the unreported-over-total ratio of fishing hours at a 0.01 degrees spatial resolution, (iii) identifies potential unreported fishing activity hotspots, (iv) extracts the stocks involved in these hotspots (using global-scale repositories of stock and species observation data) and raises an alert about their possible endangered, threatened, and protected (ETP) status. The workflow is also a free-to-use Web Service running on an open science-compliant cloud computing platform with a Web Processing Service (WPS) standard interface, allowing efficient big data processing. As a study case, we focussed on the Adriatic Sea. We reconstructed the monthly reported and potential unreported trawling activity in 2019, using terrestrial AIS data with a 5-min sampling period, containing similar to 50 million records transmitted by similar to 1,600 vessels. The results highlight that the unreported fishing activity hotspots especially impacted Italian coasts and some forbidden and protected areas. The potential unreported activity involved 33 stocks, four of which were ETP species in the basin. The extracted information agreed with expert studies, and the estimated trawling patterns agreed with those produced by the Global Fishing Watch.

Estimating hidden fishing activity hotspots from vessel transmitted data / Coro G.; Sana L.; Ferrà C.; Bove P.; Scarcella G.. - In: FRONTIERS IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS. - ISSN 2571-581X. - ELETTRONICO. - 7:(2023), pp. 1-17. [10.3389/fsufs.2023.1152226]

Estimating hidden fishing activity hotspots from vessel transmitted data

Ferrà C.;
2023

Abstract

Monitoring fishery activity is essential for resource planning and guaranteeing fisheries sustainability. Large fishing vessels constantly and continuously communicate their positions via Automatic Identification System (AIS) or Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMSs). These systems can use radio or Global Positioning System (GPS) devices to transmit data. Processing and integrating these big data with other fisheries data allows for exploring the relations between socio-economic and ecosystem assets in marine areas, which is fundamental in fishery monitoring. In this context, estimating actual fishing activity from time series of AIS and VMS data would enhance the correct identification of fishing activity patterns and help assess regulations' effectiveness. However, these data might contain gaps because of technical issues such as limited coverage of the terrestrial receivers or saturated transmission bands. Other sources of data gaps are adverse meteorological conditions and voluntary switch-offs. Gaps may also include hidden (unreported) fishing activity whose quantification would improve actual fishing activity estimation. This paper presents a workflow for AIS/VMS big-data analysis that estimates potential unreported fishing activity hotspots in a marine area. The workflow uses a statistical spatial analysis over vessel speeds and coordinates and a multi-source data integration approach that can work on multiple areas and multiple analysis scales. Specifically, it (i) estimates fishing activity locations and rebuilds data gaps, (ii) estimates the potential unreported fishing hour distribution and the unreported-over-total ratio of fishing hours at a 0.01 degrees spatial resolution, (iii) identifies potential unreported fishing activity hotspots, (iv) extracts the stocks involved in these hotspots (using global-scale repositories of stock and species observation data) and raises an alert about their possible endangered, threatened, and protected (ETP) status. The workflow is also a free-to-use Web Service running on an open science-compliant cloud computing platform with a Web Processing Service (WPS) standard interface, allowing efficient big data processing. As a study case, we focussed on the Adriatic Sea. We reconstructed the monthly reported and potential unreported trawling activity in 2019, using terrestrial AIS data with a 5-min sampling period, containing similar to 50 million records transmitted by similar to 1,600 vessels. The results highlight that the unreported fishing activity hotspots especially impacted Italian coasts and some forbidden and protected areas. The potential unreported activity involved 33 stocks, four of which were ETP species in the basin. The extracted information agreed with expert studies, and the estimated trawling patterns agreed with those produced by the Global Fishing Watch.
2023
Estimating hidden fishing activity hotspots from vessel transmitted data / Coro G.; Sana L.; Ferrà C.; Bove P.; Scarcella G.. - In: FRONTIERS IN SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS. - ISSN 2571-581X. - ELETTRONICO. - 7:(2023), pp. 1-17. [10.3389/fsufs.2023.1152226]
Coro G.; Sana L.; Ferrà C.; Bove P.; Scarcella G.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
fsufs-07-1152226.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipo: Versione (PDF) editoriale
Licenza: Licenza per Accesso Aperto. Creative Commons Attribuzione (CCBY)
Dimensione 4.25 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
4.25 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/948357
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact