Proteinogenic amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and plants synthesize all of them. In addition to their importance in plant growth and development, growing evidence underlines the central role played by amino acids and their derivatives in regulating several pathways involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. In the present review, we illustrate (i) the role of amino acids as an energy source capable of replacing sugars as electron donors to the mitochondrial electron transport chain and (ii) the role of amino acids as precursors of osmolytes as well as (iii) precursors of secondary metabolites. Among the amino acids involved in drought stress response, proline and cysteine play a special role. Besides the large proline accumulation occurring in response to drought stress, proline can export reducing equivalents to sink tissues and organs, and the production of H2S deriving from the metabolism of cysteine can mediate post-translational modifications that target protein cysteines themselves. Although our general understanding of microalgae stress physiology is still fragmentary, a general overview of how unicellular photosynthetic organisms deal with salt stress is also provided because of the growing interest in microalgae in applied sciences.

Proline, Cysteine and Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Abiotic Stress Response of Land Plants and Microalgae / Ingrisano, Rachele; Tosato, Edoardo; Trost, Paolo; Gurrieri, Libero; Sparla, Francesca. - In: PLANTS. - ISSN 2223-7747. - ELETTRONICO. - 12:19(2023), pp. 3410.3410-3410.3424. [10.3390/plants12193410]

Proline, Cysteine and Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Abiotic Stress Response of Land Plants and Microalgae

Ingrisano, Rachele
Primo
;
Tosato, Edoardo
Secondo
;
Trost, Paolo;Gurrieri, Libero
;
Sparla, Francesca
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Proteinogenic amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and plants synthesize all of them. In addition to their importance in plant growth and development, growing evidence underlines the central role played by amino acids and their derivatives in regulating several pathways involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. In the present review, we illustrate (i) the role of amino acids as an energy source capable of replacing sugars as electron donors to the mitochondrial electron transport chain and (ii) the role of amino acids as precursors of osmolytes as well as (iii) precursors of secondary metabolites. Among the amino acids involved in drought stress response, proline and cysteine play a special role. Besides the large proline accumulation occurring in response to drought stress, proline can export reducing equivalents to sink tissues and organs, and the production of H2S deriving from the metabolism of cysteine can mediate post-translational modifications that target protein cysteines themselves. Although our general understanding of microalgae stress physiology is still fragmentary, a general overview of how unicellular photosynthetic organisms deal with salt stress is also provided because of the growing interest in microalgae in applied sciences.
2023
Proline, Cysteine and Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Abiotic Stress Response of Land Plants and Microalgae / Ingrisano, Rachele; Tosato, Edoardo; Trost, Paolo; Gurrieri, Libero; Sparla, Francesca. - In: PLANTS. - ISSN 2223-7747. - ELETTRONICO. - 12:19(2023), pp. 3410.3410-3410.3424. [10.3390/plants12193410]
Ingrisano, Rachele; Tosato, Edoardo; Trost, Paolo; Gurrieri, Libero; Sparla, Francesca
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Proline, Cysteine and Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Abiotic Stress Response of Land Plants and Microalgae.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipo: Versione (PDF) editoriale
Licenza: Licenza per Accesso Aperto. Creative Commons Attribuzione (CCBY)
Dimensione 1.32 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.32 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11585/944293
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact